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5.11 PASSING BY CONSTANT REFERENCE There are two good reasons for passing a parameter by reference. If the function has to change the value of the argument, as the swap() function did, then it must be passed by reference. Also, if the argument that is passed to a function takes up a lot of storage space (for example, a one-megabyte graphics image), then it is more efficient to pass it by reference to prevent it from being duplicated. However, this also allows the function to change the value (i.e., contents) of the argument. If you don t want the function to change its contents (for example, if the purpose of the function is to print the object), then passing by reference can be risky. Fortunately, C++ provides a third alternative: passing by constant reference. It works the same way as passing by reference, except that the function is prevented from changing the value of the parameter. The effect is that the function has access to the argument by means of its formal parameter alias, but the value of that formal parameter may not be changed during the execution of the function. A parameter that is passed by value is called read-only because it cannot write (i.e., change) the contents of that parameter. EXAMPLE 5.19 Passing By Constant Reference
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This illustrates the three ways to pass a parameter to a function: void f(int x, int& y, const int& z) { x += z; y += z; cout << "x = " << x << ", y = " << y << ", z = " << z << endl; } The first parameter a is passed by value, the second parameter b is passed by reference, and the third parameter c is passed by constant reference: void f(int, int&, const int&); int main() { // tests the f() function: int a = 22, b = 33, c = 44; cout << "a = " << a << ", b = " << b << ", c = " << c << endl; f(a,b,c); cout << "a = " << a << ", b = " << b << ", c = " << c << endl; f(2*a-3,b,c); cout << "a = " << a << ", b = " << b << ", c = " << c << endl; } a = 22, b = 33, c = 44 x = 66, y = 77, z = 44 a = 22, b = 77, c = 44 x = 85, y = 121, z = 44 a = 22, b = 121, c = 44 The function changes the formal parameters x and y, but it would not be able to change z. The function s change of x has no effect upon the argument a because it was passed by value. The function s change of y causes the same change on the argument b because it was passed by reference.
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Passing parameters by constant reference is used mostly in functions that process large objects, such as arrays and class instances that are described in later chapters. Objects of fundamental types (integers, floats, etc.) are usually passed either by value (if you don t want the function to change them) or by reference (if you do want the function to change them).
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5.12 INLINE FUNCTIONS A function call involves substantial overhead. Extra time and space have to be used to invoke the function, pass parameters to it, allocate storage for its local variables, store the current variables and the location of execution in the main program, etc. In some cases, it is better to avoid all this by specifying the function to be inline. This tells the compiler to replace each call to the function with explicit code for the function. To the programmer, an inline function appears the same as an ordinary function, except for the use of the inline specifier. EXAMPLE 5.20 Inlining the Cube Function
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This is the same cube() function as in Example 5.3 on page 90: inline int cube(int x) { // returns cube of x: return x*x*x; } The only difference is that the inline keyword has been added as a prefix to the function s head. This tells the compiler to replace the expression cube(n) in the main program with the actual code (n)*(n)*(n). So this test program int main() { // tests the cube() function: cout << cube(4) << endl; int x, y; cin >> x; y = cube(2*x-3); } will actually be compiled as though it were this program: int main() { // tests the cube() function: cout << (4)*(4)*(4) << endl; int x, y; cin >> x; y = (2*X+3)*(2*X+3)*(2*X+3); }
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When the compiler replaces the inline function call with the function s actual code, we say that it expands the inline function. The C++ Standard does not actually require the compiler to expand inline functions. It only advises the compiler to do so. A compiler that doesn t follow this advice could still be validated as a Standard C++ compiler. On the other hand, some Standard C++ compilers may expand some simple functions even if they are not declared to be inline. Warning: use of inlined function can cause negative side effects. For example, inlining a 40-line function that is called in 26 different locations would add at least 1000 lines of unnoticed source code to your program. Inlined functions can also limit the portability of your code across platforms.
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