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EXAMPLE 6.5 An Uninitialized Array
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This program initializes the array a and then prints its values: int main() { const int SIZE=4; // defines the size N for 4 elements float a[SIZE]; // declares the array's elements as type float for (int i=0; i<SIZE; i++) cout << "\ta[" << i << "] = " << a[i] << endl; } a[0] = 6.01838e-39 a[1] = 9.36651e-39 a[2] = 6.00363e-39 a[3] = 0 Note that the values in the uninitialized array may or may not be zero; it depends upon how that part of memory was used prior to the execution of this program.
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Note that an initialization is not the same as an assignment. Arrays can be initialized, but they cannot be assigned:
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float a[7] = { 22.2, 44.4, 66.6 }; float b[7] = { 33.3, 55.5, 77.7 }; b = a; // ERROR: arrays cannot be assigned!
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Nor can an array be used to initialize another array:
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float a[7] = { 22.2, 44.4, 66.6 }; float b[7] = a; // ERROR: arrays cannot be used as initializers!
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6.4 ARRAY INDEX OUT OF BOUNDS In some programming languages, an index variable will not be allowed to go beyond the bounds set by the array s definition. For example, in Pascal, if an array a is defined to be indexed from 0 to 3, then the reference a[6] will crash the program. This is a security device that does not exist for arrays in C++ (or C). As the next example shows, the index variable may run far beyond its defined range without any error being detected by the computer. EXAMPLE 6.6 Allowing an Array Index to Exceed its Bounds
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This program has a run-time error: it accesses a part of memory that is not allocated: int main() { const int SIZE=4; float a[SIZE] = { 33.3, 44.4, 55.5, 66.6 }; for (int i=0; i<7; i++) // ERROR: index is out of bounds! cout << "\ta[" << i << "] = " << a[i] << endl; }
a[0] = 33.3 a[1] = 44.4 a[2] = 55.5 a[3] = 66.6 a[4] = 5.60519e-45 a[5] = 6.01888e-39 a[6] = 6.01889e-39 The last three values printed are garbage values, left from the previous use of those bytes in memory.
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Allowing an array index to exceed its bounds can cause disastrous side effects, as the next example shows. EXAMPLE 6.7 Causing Side Effects
This program inadvertently changes the value of a variable when it accesses a nonexistent element of an array: int main() { const int SIZE=4; float a[] = { 22.2, 44.4, 66.6 }; float x=11.1; cout << "x = " << x << endl; a[3] = 88.8; // ERROR: index is out of bounds! cout << "x = " << x << endl; a } 0 22.2 x = 11.1 1 44.4 x = 88.8 2 66.6 The variable x is declared after the array a, so the system allocates a 4-byte block of memory to x that immediately follows the 12 bytes x 88.8 of memory that it allocates to the 3 elements of a. Consequently, the 16 contiguous bytes of memory that a and x occupy are configured as though x were a[3]. So when the program assigns 88.8 to a[3] (which does not exist), it actually changes the value of x to 88.8. This is depicted in the diagram on the right which represents 20 contiguous bytes of memory; the four bytes used to store 88.8 immediately follow the four bytes used to store 66.6. This is the worst kind of run-time error. It changes the value of a variable which is completely independent and not even mentioned in the code where the change occurs. This kind of error is called a side effect. It can have disastrous consequences because it may not be detected.
It is the C++ programmer s responsibility to ensure that array index values are kept in range. As Example 6.7 shows, the penalty for shirking that responsibility can be severe if the resulting side effects are not detected. The next example shows that a different kind of run-time error can occur if an array index is allowed to get too big. EXAMPLE 6.8 Causing Unhandled Exceptions
This program crashes because the array index gets too big: int main() { const int SIZE=4; float a[] = { 22.2, 44.4, 66.6 }; float x=11.1; cout << "x = " << x << endl; a[3333] = 88.8; // ERROR: index is out of bounds! cout << "x = " << x << endl; }
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