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Solutions to Problems 7.7-7.24 are available on-line at projectEuclid.net.
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8.1 INTRODUCTION A C-string (also called a character string) is a sequence of contiguous characters in memory terminated by the NUL character '\0'. C-strings are accessed by variables of type char* (pointer to char). For example, if s has type char*, then
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cout << s << endl;
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will print all the characters stored in memory beginning at the address s and ending with the first occurrence of the NUL character. The C header file <cstring> provides a wealth of special functions for manipulating C-strings. For example, the call strlen(s) will return the number of characters in the C-string s, not counting its terminating NUL character. These functions all declare their C-string parameters as pointers to char. So before we study these C-string operations, we need to review pointers. (See Section 7.3 on page 158.) 8.2 REVIEW OF POINTERS
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A pointer is a memory address. For example, the following declarations define n to be an int with value 44 and pn to be a pointer containing the address of n:
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int n = 44; int* pn = &n;
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0x0064fde0
pn 0x0064fddc
int*
If we imagine memory to be a sequence of bytes with hexadecimal addresses, then we can picture n and pn as shown at right. This shows n stored at the address 64fddc and pn stored at the address 64fde0. The variable n contains value 44 and the variable pn contains the address value 64fddc. The value of pn is the address of n. This relationship is usually represented by a simpler diagram like the one shown at right below. This shows two rectangles, one labeled n and one labeled pn. The rectangles represent storage locations in memory. The variable pn points to the variable n. We can access n through the pointer pn by means of the dereference operator *. For example, the statement
*pn = 77;
0x0064fdda 0x0064fddb 0x0064fddc 0x0064fddd 0x0064fdde 0x0064fddf 0x0064fde0 0x0064fde1 0x0064fde2 0x0064fde3 0x0064fde4 0x0064fde5 0x0064fde6 0x0064fde7 0x0064fde8 0x0064fde9 0x0064fdea 0x0064fdeb 0x0064fdec 0x0064fded
64 dc fd
would change the value of n to 77. We can have more than one pointer pointing to the same object:
float* q = &x;
pn Now *pn, *q, and x are all names for the same object whose int* address is 64fddc and whose current value is 77. This is shown in the diagram at right. Here, q is stored at the address 64fde4. The value stored in q is the address 64fddc of n.
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C-STRINGS
[CHAP. 8
The example below traces these definitions on a Windows workstation running Metrowerks CodeWarrior C++ on a Pentium III processor. As these diagrams indicate, memory is allocated in ascending order. The first object n, is stored at address 65fcc8, occupying bytes 65fcc8 65fccb. The second object, pn, is stored at address 65fccc. The third object, q, is stored at address 65fcd0. EXAMPLE 8.1 Tracing Pointers
This program is similar to Example 7.5 on page 159: int main() { int n=44; // n holds the int 44 cout << "int n=44; // n holds the int 44:\n"; pn cout << "\t\t n = " << n << endl; int* cout << "\t\t &n = " << &n << endl; int* pn=&n; // pn holds the address of n cout << "int* pn=&n; // pn holds the address of n:\n"; cout << "\t\t n = " << n << endl; cout << "\t\t &n = " << &n << endl; cout << "\t\t pn = " << pn << endl; cout << "\t\t &pn = " << &pn << endl; cout << "\t\t *pn = " << *pn << endl; *pn = 77; // changes the value of n to 77 cout << "*pn = 77; // changes the value of n to 77:\n"; cout << "\t\t n = " << n << endl; cout << "\t\t &n = " << &n << endl; cout << "\t\t pn = " << pn << endl; cout << "\t\t &pn = " << &pn << endl; cout << "\t\t *pn = " << *pn << endl; int* q=&n; // q also holds the address of n cout << "int* q=&n; // q also holds the address of n:\n"; cout << "\t\t n = " << n << endl; cout << "\t\t &n = " << &n << endl; cout << "\t\t pn = " << pn << endl; cout << "\t\t &pn = " << &pn << endl; cout << "\t\t *pn = " << *pn << endl; cout << "\t\t q = " << q << endl; cout << "\t\t &q = " << &q << endl; cout << "\t\t *q = " << *q << endl; } int* pn=&n; // pn holds the address of n: n = 44 &n = 0x0065fcc8 pn = 0x0065fcc8 &pn = 0x0065fccc *pn = 44 *pn = 77; // changes the value of n to 77: n = 77 &n = 0x0065fcc8 pn = 0x0065fcc8 &pn = 0x0065fccc *pn = 77
0x0065fcc6 0x0065fcc7 0x0065fcc8 0x0065fcc9 0x0065fcca 0x0065fccb 0x0065fccc 0x0065fccd 0x0065fcce 0x0065fccf 0x0065fcd0 0x0065fcd1 0x0065fcd2 0x0065fcd3 0x0065fcd4 0x0065fcd5 0x0064fdea 0x0064fdeb 0x0064fdec 0x0064fded n
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