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EXAMPLE 3.7
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Consider the following error data (given as the times between errors): 4, 3, 5, 6, 4, 6, 7. The instantaneous error rates are the inverses of the inter-error times: 0.25, 0.33, 0.20, 0.17, 0.25, 0.17, and 0.14. Plotting these against error number gives a downward curve, as shown in Figure 3-2. This suggests that the actual error rate is decreasing.
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Number of Errors
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0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 1 2
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6 7 8 Error Rates 9 10 11 12
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Error
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Fig. 3-2. Plot of error rates. A straight line through the points would intersect the axis about 11. Since this implies that the error rate would go to zero at the eleventh error, an estimate of the total number of errors in this software would be 11 errors. Since seven errors have been found, this suggests that there may be four more errors in the software.
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Postmortem Reviews
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One critical aspect of software development is to learn from your mistakes and successes. In software development, this is called a postmortem. It consists of
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Project Name Project X Management measures
Start Date Sept. 5, 00
Software Project Management
Completion Date Dec 8, 00
Size Estimated 3000 LOC Actual 5000 LOC
E ort Estimated 12,000 min Actual 10,000 min
Subjective comments on estimation Subjective comments on process Subjective comments on schedule Quality
Good E ort was close in total.
Bad Imp e ort was underestimated.
Good
Bad Team members did not complete asgn on time. Bad Not enough time for imp.
Good
Errors found. Req Design Unit Integ 30 Postdel
ave mccabe Method/class Attributes/class LOC/class 4 6 10 150
max 30 10 15 500
Subjective comments on quality Problem: Initial req ambiguity Problem: Problem: Problem:
Good
Bad System not tested well.
Description: Format of input le was initially wrong
Impact: 2 weeks wasted
Description: Description: Description:
Impact: Impact: Impact:
CHAPTER 3 Software Project Management
assembling key people from the development and the users groups. Issues consist of quality, schedule, and software process. It is important that everyone feel free to express opinions. A formal report needs to be produced and distributed. The reports should not be sanitized.
EXAMPLE 3.8
Company JKL produced the postmortem report shown on p. 38.
Review Questions
1. What is meant by visibility 2. What is the di erence between a process approach and a project approach 3. For a new project that is very di erent from any previous project, would a process or project management approach be better 4. What is the advantage of making many small, inch-pebble assignments 5. Which earned value progress measures can decrease during a project 6. For which of the earned value progress measures is a value greater than 1 good 7. What would be the advantage of using the inverse of SPI and CPI
Problems
1. Draw a process model for a team that has a weak structure and depends on the team discussions to set directions and resolve issues. 2. Using the following time log, calculate the programmer s productivity in LOC/day. Assume that project 1 was 120 LOC and project 2 was 80 LOC.
Date 2/1/01 2/2/01 2/5/01 2/6/01 Start 08:30 09:00 09:00 07:30 Stop 16:30 17:00 17:30 12:00 Interruptions 60 lunch 30 lunch 30 lunch, 60 mtg Delta Task Proj 1 coding Proj 1 coding Proj 2 coding Proj 2 coding
Software Project Management
3. Using the following job log, calculate all of the basic measures and the progress indicators. Is the project on schedule Assume that it is currently 5/01/01.
Actual E ort So Far (programmerdays) 70 20 40 40 10 20
Work Task 1 2 3 4 5 6
Estimated E ort (programmerdays) 50 35 20 40 60 80
Estimated Completion Date 1/15/01 2/15/01 2/25/01 4/15/01 6/1/01 7/1/01
Actual Date Completed 2/1/01 2/15/01 3/1/01 4/1/01
4. Use a spreadsheet to calculate the PV and the progress indicators for the following project at half-month intervals from January 1 through September 1.
Estimated E ort (programmerdays) 30 25 30 50 60 35 55 30 45 25 45 Actual E ort (programmerdays) 37 24 41 47 63 31 58 28 43 29 49
Work Task 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Estimated Completion Date 1/1 2/15 3/1 4/15 5/1 5/15 6/1 6/15 7/1 8/1 8/15
Actual Date Completed 2/1 2/15 3/15 4/1 4/15 6/1 6/1 6/15 7/15 8/15 9/1
CHAPTER 3 Software Project Management
5. A professor has 40 homework assignments and 40 exams to grade. The exams usually take 3 times as long to grade as the homework assignments. Calculate the PV for each homework and for each exam. After 5 hours, if the professor has half of the exams done, how long should he estimate it will take to complete the grading 6. Given the following inter-error times (that is, the time between occurrences of errors), use plots to estimate the total original number of errors and the time to completely remove all errors: 6, 4, 8, 5, 6, 9, 11, 14, 16, 19. 7. The project started on January 1 and should be nished by June 1. It is now March 1. Complete the following table. Calculate EV, SPI, SV, and CV. Determine whether the project is on time. Justify your answer. Show your work.
Job # 1 2 3 4 Est. Time 30 20 50 100 Actual Time Spent 10 30 30 5 PV Due Date Feb. 1 Mar. 1 May 1 Jun. 1 Yes Yes Completed
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