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Object Model
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The basic approach in an object-oriented (OO) methodology is to develop an object model (see Section 2.4) that describes that subset of the real world that is the problem domain. The purpose is modeling the problem domain and not designing an implementation. Thus, entities that are essential to understanding the problem will be included even if they are not going to be included in the solution. The attributes and methods included in the object model will also be those needed for understanding the problem and not those that will just be important for the solution. The following are rules for object models for requirements: 1. All real-world entities that are important to understanding the problem domain must be included. 2. All methods and attributes that are important to understanding the problem domain must be included. 3. Objects, attributes, and methods that are only signi cant for the implementation should not be included.
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CHAPTER 8 Requirements
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EXAMPLE 8.1
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Draw an object model for the library problem (see Example 2.6). See Fig. 8-1.
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Fig. 8-1.
Object model for library problem.
EXAMPLE 8.2
Draw an object model for simplified vi-like editor. See Fig. 8-2.
editfile file user login filename fileptr currentloc mode name type
Fig. 8-2.
Object model for simpli ed vi-like editor.
Data Flow Modeling
Although not used much in OO development, data ow diagrams (see Section 2.2) were essential parts of pre-OO software development. Data ow diagrams (DFDs) still have an important role in the speci cation of many systems. The importance of data ow diagrams is in specifying what data is available to a component. Knowing the data available often helps in the understanding of what a component is expected to do and how it will accomplish the task.
EXAMPLE 8.3
Draw a DFD for the simple Unix, vi-like editor. See Fig. 8-3.
Requirements
SRC code
Instrument code Test cases
Inst. code Compile and execute
Output Coverage Analyze report
Vi-like editor
Fig. 8-3.
Data ow diagram for Unix, vi-like editor.
Behavioral Modeling
Behavioral modeling refers to the behavior of the system, usually from the user point of view. These diagrams are used to specify aspects of the proposed system. It is important that the diagrams capture the essential aspects of the system and are able to communicate those aspects both to the developer and to the user for con rmation that this is the system that he or she wants.
USE CASE
The use case diagram represents the functionality of the system from the user s point of view (see Section 2.5). All critical functionality must be mentioned. However, routine functions that are implied by a higher-level phrase do not have to be speci cally mentioned (the danger of miscommunication must be balanced by clarity). The textual requirements will detail these individual functions.
EXAMPLE 8.4
Draw the use case diagram for an editor that is similar to a simplified Unix vi-like editor. See Fig. 8-4.
Create file
Open file Insert text
Save file
Modify text
Fig. 8-4.
Use case diagram for editor.
CHAPTER 8 Requirements
The essential functions in this diagram are file manipulation (create, save, and open). Insert and modify are intended as higher-level phrases covering the typical text-editing functions. Note that some capabilities such as search, copy, and move may be neglected, since they are not mentioned explicitly.
8.4.2 SCENARIOS
A scenario is a sequence of actions that accomplishes a user task. Alternative sequences are only shown by having a separate scenario for each alternative. Scenarios are used to illustrate an important capability or proposed use of the system. In UML, an interaction diagram (see 2) is used to specify the scenarios. Scenarios can also be speci ed by listing the sequence of actions.
EXAMPLE 8.5
Write scenarios for the simplified vi editor using each use case in Example 8.4. Use semicolons to separate actions. Use parentheses to contain comments or conditions. Create le vi lename ( le does not already exist) Open le vi lename ( le already exists) Insert text I ; <desired text> ; <esc> i ; <desired text> ; <esc> O ; <desired text> ; <esc> o ; <desired text> ; <esc> A ; <desired text> ; <esc> a ; <desired text> ; <esc> Modify text cw ; <new text> ; <esc> dw dd x Save le ZZ Note: Not all sequences are shown. For the sake of brevity, not all operations are shown. In an actual specification, efforts should be made to show all operations and significant sequences of operations. In this example, each scenario represents only a part of the use. Alternatively, each scenario could run from open file to close file.
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