2d barcode generator vb.net ATTRIBUTES OF DESIGN in Software

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ATTRIBUTES OF DESIGN
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Three design attributes are as follows: Abstraction An object is abstract if unnecessary details are removed. Similarly, abstraction in art tries to convey an image with just a few details.
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CHAPTER 9 Software Design
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Abstraction in software design tries to let the designer focus on the essential issues without regard to unnecessary low-level details. Good abstraction hides the unnecessary details. Cohesion A material is cohesive if it sticks together. A procedure is cohesive if all the statements in the procedure are related to every output. A class is cohesive if all the attributes in the class are used by every method. That is, cohesion in a module is achieved if everything is related. High cohesion is generally considered desirable. Originally, cohesion was de ned in terms of types of cohesion.3 The types included coincidental, logical, temporal, procedural, communicational, sequential, and functional. Temporal cohesion was when all functions were grouped together, since they had to be performed at the same time. Logical cohesion was when the functions logically belonged together. Coupling Coupling is a measure of how interconnected modules are. Two modules are coupled if a change to a variable in one module may require changes in the other module. Usually the lowest coupling is desirable.
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EXAMPLE 9.6
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Evaluate the abstraction in the borrow functionality in the library problem. The borrow function appears in three classes: library, patron, and bookcopy. The best abstraction is if the borrow function in library knows as few details about the patron and bookcopy functions as possible. For example, does the borrow function need to know about the loan class As shown in Fig. 9-3, if the borrow function in library just calls the borrow function in one of the lower levels, then it has good abstraction. That lower class will be handle the details of creating the loan instance and passing the pointer to the other lower-level class.
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library borrow
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create borrow
Fig. 9-3
If, however, the borrow function in library knows about the loan class, it can check the availability of the book, create the loan instance, and call both lower-level borrow functions to set the values of the loan instance. (See Fig. 94.)
W. Stevens, G. Myers, and L. Constantine, Structured Design, IBM Systems Journal, 13 #2, 1974, 115 139.
library bookcopy borrow findstatus
CHAPTER 9 Software Design
patron loan
create borrow borrow
Fig. 9-4
The version in Fig. 9.5 does not have good abstraction. That is, the details of the lower-level classes have not been hidden from the borrow function in library.
library borrow
bookcopy borrow
patron
loan
create borrow
Fig. 9-5.
Borrow interaction diagram version 1.
Measuring Cohesion
9.4.1 PROGRAM SLICES
The values of variables in a program depend on the values of other variables. There are two basic dependencies: data dependencies, where the value of x a ects the value of y through de nition and use pairs, and control dependencies, where the value of x determines whether code that contains de nitions of y executes.
EXAMPLE 9.7 MULTIPLICATION BY REPEATED ADDITION
The following code calculates the product of x and y . The output variable z has a data dependency on the variable x , since x is added to z. The output z has a control dependency on the variable y , since y controls how many times x is added to z.
CHAPTER 9 Software Design
z = 0; while x > 0 do z = z + y; x = x 1; end-while
Program slices can be calculated from either direction. An output slice nds every statement that a ects the value of the speci ed output. An input slice nds every statement that is a ected by the value of the speci ed input. It is easier to calculate the program slices from a directed graph that has a set of nodes, n, where each node is an input, an output, or a statement in the code. The arcs, e, are the dependencies. James Bieman and Linda Ott4 have used variable de nitions and references as the basic units instead of program statements. These de nitions and references are called tokens. Thus, every constant reference, variable reference, and variable de nition is a separate token.
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