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Fig 10-2.
Control ow graph of triangle problem.
Software Testing
There are many data ow testing criteria. The basic criteria include dcu, which requires a def-free path from every de nition to a c-use; dpu, which requires a def-free path from every de nition to a p-use; and du, which requires a def-free path from every de nition to every possible use. The most extensive criteria is all-du-paths, which requires all def-free paths from every de nition to every possible use.
EXAMPLE 10.10 Data Flow Testing of Triangle Problem
dcu The only c-use is for variable type in node k (the output statement). From def type in node abc to node k Path abc,e,g,i,k From def type in node d to node k Path d,e,g,i,k From def type in node f to node k Path f,g,i,k From def type in node h to node k Path h,i,k From def type in node j to node k Path j,k dpu The only p-use is for variables a,b,c and the only def of a,b,c is node abc. From From From From From From From From node node node node node node node node abc abc abc abc abc abc abc abc to to to to to to to to arc arc arc arc arc arc arc arc abc-d abc-e e-f e-g g-h g-i i-j i-k
du All defs to all uses. All test cases of dcu and dpu combined. all-du-paths All def-free paths from all defs to all uses. Same as du tests.
Random Testing
Random testing is accomplished by randomly selecting the test cases. This approach has the advantage of being fast and it also eliminates biases of the testers. Additionally, statistical inference is easier when the tests are selected randomly. Often the tests are selected randomly from an operational pro le.
EXAMPLE 10.11
For the triangle problem, we could use a random number generator and group each successive set of three numbers as a test set. We would have the additional work of determining the expected output. One problem with this is that the chance of ever generating an equilateral test case would be very small. If it actually happened, we would probably start questioning our pseudorandom number generator.
156 10.5.1
CHAPTER 10 Software Testing OPERATIONAL PROFILE
Testing in the development environment is often very di erent than execution in the operational environment. One way to make these two more similar is to have a speci cation of the types and the probabilities that those types will be encountered in the normal operations. This speci cation is called an operational pro le. By drawing the test cases from the operational pro le, the tester will have more con dence that the behavior of the program during testing is more predictive of how it will behave during operation.
EXAMPLE 10.12
A possible operational profile for the triangle problem is as follows:
# 1 2 3 4 5 6
Description equilateral isosceles obtuse isosceles right scalene right triangle scalene all acute scalene obtuse angle
Probability .20 .10 .20 .10 .25 .15
To apply random testing, the tester might generate a number to select the category by probabilities and then sufficient additional numbers to create the test case. If the category selected was the equilateral case, the tester would use the same number for all three inputs. An isosceles right would require a random number for the length of the two sides, and then the use of trigonometry to calculate the other side.
STATISTICAL INFERENCE FROM TESTING
If random testing has been done by randomly selecting test cases from an operational pro le, then the behavior of the software during testing should be the same as its behavior in the operational environment.
Software Testing
EXAMPLE 10.13
If we selected 1000 test cases randomly using an operational profile and found three errors, we could predict that this software would have an error rate of less than three failures per 1000 executions in the operational environment. See Section 3.8 for more information on using error rates.
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