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CHAPTER 2 Software Process and Other Models
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The following are rules for correct state diagrams: 1. 2. 3. 4. There is one initial state. Every state can be reached from the initial state. From each state, there must be a path to a stop state. Every transition between states must be labeled with an event that will cause that transition.
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EXAMPLE 2.15
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Draw a state diagram for a fixed-size stack. (See Fig. 2-14.)
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push new push empty pop pop normal pop push full
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Fig. 2-14.
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State diagram for a xed-size stack.
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There are two approaches to state diagrams. In Fig. 2-14, only legal or nonerror transitions are speci ed. It is assumed that any transition that is not shown is illegal. For example, there is no push transition from the full state. Another approach is to show all transitions, including transitions that cause errors.
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EXAMPLE 2.16
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Draw a state diagram for a stack with all the error transitions shown. (See Fig. 2-15.)
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push new push empty pop pop-error msg pop normal pop push
push-error msg
full
Fig. 2-15.
State diagrams showing error transitions.
State diagrams can be drawn directly from source code. Each function must be examined for decisions that are based on the values of variables (the state of the system).
CHAPTER 2 Software Process and Other Models
EXAMPLE 2.17
The following code is for a push method on a finite stack: int push(int item) { if (stackindex == MAX) {return ERROR;} stack[stackindex++] = item; return 0; } From this code, two states with different behavior of the function can be identified. Note that the stackindex starts at zero. One state is related to the condition stackindex == MAX, and the other state is related to the condition stackindex != MAX. Analysis of the increment will show that the second state is stackindex < MAX (at least from this method). Analyzing the pop method will reveal the empty state of the stack.
Lattice Models
A lattice is a mathematical structure that shows set relationships. Although not used in software development very often, it is being used more to show the relationships between sets of functions and attributes.
EXAMPLE 2.18
Draw a lattice model for a stack implementation that has attributes for an array (s-array) and the index of the top element of the stack (index) and methods to push, pop, val (displays top value), and depth. (See Fig. 2-16.)
s-array index
push, val
pop, depth
index
s-array
(empty)
Fig. 2-16.
Lattice model for stack example.
The top node represents the set of all the attributes and the bottom node the empty set. The nodes are annotated with the names of the functions that use that subset of the attributes.
CHAPTER 2 Software Process and Other Models
Review Questions
1. What are the di erences between a software life cycle model and a process model 2. What is the di erence between a descriptive process model and a prescriptive process model 3. Why are decisions more common in prescriptive process models than in descriptive process models 4. Why should tasks in a process model be separated by an artifact 5. Why can t a task in a process model start until its input artifacts exist 6. Why does every node in a process model have to have a path from the start node to itself and a path from itself to a terminal node 7. In Example 2.3, how can a person distinguish between a test review that only occurs after all the unit testing was complete and a test review that occurs after each module has been unit tested 8. What do data ow diagrams specify about control ow 9. When does a petri net ring position re 10. What happens when a petri net ring position res 11. What is the di erence between the problem domain and the solution space 12. What changes in an object model from requirements to design 13. Classify each of the following relationships as either an inheritance relationship, an aggregation relationship, or a general association: Car Lincoln Town car Person Student Library Library patron Book Copy Car Driver Patron Book loan Class Students 14. Classify each of the following as a class or an instance of a class: My automobile Person Fred Vehicle Professor The CIS department 15. What is the relationship between a scenario and a state diagram showing all possible sequences of actions 16. In an interaction diagram, is the calling class or the called class at the head of the arrow 17. Explain why the aggregation relation is a relation in the problem domain and not in the implementation domain. 18. Why don t data ow diagrams have rules about reachability between the nodes
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