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CHAPTER 14 Formal Notations
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Object Constraint Language (OCL)
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Object Constraint Language (OCL) is part of the UML speci cation.2 It was originally used to specify parts of UML. Currently, there is no tool that supports the analysis of OCL statements in the UML speci cation. OCL uses the object model to provide the context for the speci cation. Most OCL statements evaluate to a collection of entities. OCL includes operations and comparisons that can be applied to the resulting collection. OCL statements are always written with a context. The context is usually a class in the object model. The context is represent by an underlined name of a class. The OCL expression self starts the navigation. It refers to an instance of the class.
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NAVIGATION
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An OCL expression can use the rolename of the opposite side of an association, the name of the association, or the name of the class. The result will either be a collection or an element. If the multiplicity is 0 or 1, it will be a single object. Otherwise, it will be a collection.
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EXAMPLE 14.1
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The following OCL statements all evaluate to the set of all loans of books currently borrowed from the library (see object shown in Fig. 14-1).
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1 cardholders 1..* patron name borrow return 1 checked out by check out 0..* loan due date
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library
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1 holdings 1..* book name 1 1..* copy
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borrowed
1 borrow check in
Fig. 14-1
The OCL speci cation is available on the Web. Type OCL in a browser search tool or go to www.software.ibm.com/ad/ocl.
Formal Notations
library self.holdings.copy.borrowed self.cardholders.checkedout The underlined library states the context. The self indicates an instance of the class library. The expression self.holdings evaluates to the set of all instances of class book. The expression self.holdings.copy evaluates to the set of all copies of all books. The expression self.holdings.copy.borrowed evaluates to the set of all instances of loans of books from the library. The expression self.cardholders evaluates to the set of all instances of patron. The expression self.cardholders.checkedout evaluates to the set of all instances of loan.
14.3.2 INVARIANTS
Invariants in OCL are always written with a context that is shown as an underlined object name. Usually navigation is used to identify a collection or element that is compared with another collection or element. Functions can be applied to the result of the navigation.
EXAMPLE 14.2
Write an invariant for the library problem using the expressions from Example 14.1. library self.holdings.copy.borrowed = self.cardholders.checkedout The underlined library states the context of this invariant. The invariant states that the set of loans of books borrowed by cardholders is the same as the set of book copies checked out. library self.holdings.copy = self.cardholders.checkedout.borrowed The preceding invariant is correct type-wise, but it is not true. The expression self.holdings.copy evaluates to the set of all instances of copy of book in the library. The other expression evaluates to the set of all instances of copy of book that are currently checked out. This would only be true if all the books in the library were currently checked out.
14.3.3 ATTRIBUTES
The expression can also refer to the value of an attribute. The same dot notation is used.
EXAMPLE 14.3
Write an invariant that says that Grapes of Wrath is not in the library. book self.name <> Grapes of Wrath The context is the class book. The expression self.name evaluates to the value of the name of the book.
212 14.3.4
CHAPTER 14 Formal Notations PREDEFINED OPERATIONS
OCL has many operations on collections: size, count(object), includes (object), sum, and includesall(collection).
EXAMPLE 14.4
Write an invariant that says that no patron can have more than 10 books checked out at a time. Patron self.checkedout->size < 10 The expression self.checkedout evaluates to the set of loans associated with a patron. The operation size returns the number, and the invariant requires the number to be less than 10.
PRE- AND POST-CONDITIONS
In OCL, the context of the pre- and post-conditions must be shown as an underlined function. The syntax pre: and post distinguishes the pre- and post-condition. The keyword result can be used to designate the result of the operation. The syntax @pre is used in OCL to specify the value before an operation.
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