VISUAL BASIC FUNDAMENTALS in Visual Studio .NET

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VISUAL BASIC FUNDAMENTALS
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[CHAP. 2
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2.11 DISPLAYING OUTPUT THE Print STATEMENT The Print statement is used to display information within the currently active form, beginning in the upper left corner. This statement is not used often in Visual Basic projects. However, it is very convenient for displaying the results of very simple programs, and it provides a way to view the results of small program segments during the development of a large project. The Print statement consists of the keyword Print, followed by a list of output items. The output items can be numeric constants, string constants, or expressions. Successive items must be separated either by commas or semicolons. Commas result in wide separation between data items; semicolons result in less separation. Each new Print statement will begin a new line of output. An empty Print statement will result in a blank line.
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A Visual Basic program contains the following statements.
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Dim Student As String, X As Integer, C1 As Single, C2 As Single . . . . . Student = "Aaron" X = 39 C1 = 7 C2 = 11 . . . . . Print "Name:", Student, X, (C1 + C2) / 2
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The Print statement will generate the following line of output:
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Name: Aaron 39 9
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If the Print statement had been written with semicolons separating the data items, e.g.,
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Print "Name:"; Student; X; (C1 + C2) / 2
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then the output data would be spaced more closely together, as shown below.
Name: Aaron 39 9
Now suppose the original Print statement had been replaced by the following three successive Print statements:
Print "Name:"; Student Print Print X,, (C1 + C2) / 2
Notice the repeated comma in the last Print statement. The output would appear as
Name: Aaron 39 9
The empty Print statement would produce the blank line separating the first and second lines of output. Also, the repeated comma in the last Print statement would increase the separation between the two data items.
CHAP. 2]
VISUAL BASIC FUNDAMENTALS
2.12 LIBRARY FUNCTIONS Visual Basic contains numerous library functions that provide a quick and easy way to carry out many mathematical operations, manipulate strings, and perform various logical operations. These library functions are prewritten routines that are included as an integral part of the language. They may be used in place of variables within an expression or a statement. Table 2.1 presents several commonly used library functions. A library function is accessed simply by stating its name, followed by whatever information must be supplied to the function, enclosed in parentheses. A numeric quantity or string that is passed to a function in this manner is called an argument. Once the library function has been accessed, the desired operation will be carried out automatically. The function will then return the desired value. Table 2.1 Commonly Used Library Functions Function
Abs CDbl, CInt, CSng, CStr, CVar, etc. Chr
Application
y = Abs(x) y = CInt(x) y = Chr(x)
Description
Return the absolute value of x; y = |x|. Convert x to the appropriate data type (CDbl converts to double, CInt to integer, CSng to single, etc.). Return the character whose numerically encoded value is x. For example, in the ASCII character set,
Chr(65) = "A".
Cos Date Exp Format
y = Cos(x) y = Date y = Exp(x) y =
Return the cosine of x (x must be in radians). Return the current system date.
Int Lcase Left Len Log Mid Right Rnd Sgn Sin Sqr Str Tan Time Ucase Val
y = y = y =
Return the value of e to the x power; y = ex. Format(x, frmt str ) Return the value of x in a format designated by frmt str (format string). Note that the format string may take on several different forms. Int(x) Return the largest integer that algebraically does not exceed x. For example, Int(-1.9) = -2. Lcase(x) Return the lowercase equivalent of x. Left(x, n) Return the leftmost n characters of the string x. Return the length (number of characters) of x. Return the natural logarithm of x; y = loge(x), x > 0. Return the middle n2 characters of the string x, beginning with character number n1. Return the rightmost n characters of the string x. Return a random number, uniformly distributed within the interval 0 y <1. Determine the sign of x; (y = +1 if x is positive, y= 0 if x = 0, and y = 1 if x is negative). Return the sine of x (x must be in radians). Return the square root of x; y = x , x > 0. Return a string whose characters comprise the value of x. For example, Str(-2.50) = "-2.50". Return the tangent of x (x must be in radians). Return the current system time. Return the uppercase equivalent of x. Return a numeric value corresponding to the string x, providing x has the appearance of a number. For example,
Val("-2.50") = -2.5.
y = Len(x) y = Log(x) y = Mid(x, n1, n2) y = Right(x, n) y = Rnd y = Sgn(x) y = Sin(x) y = Sqr(x) y = Str(x) y = Tan(x) y = Time y = Ucase(x) y = Val(x)
Note: The symbol e represents the base of the natural (Naperian) system of logarithms. It is an irrational number whose approximate value is 2.718282.
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