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Private Sub Command2_Click() Dim Index As Integer For Index = 0 To 9 Combo1.List(Index) = "" Combo2.List(Index) = "" Next Index End Sub Private Sub Command3_Click() End End Sub
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When the program is executed, we first see the form shown in Fig. 8.9. If we then click on the Go button, the combo boxes become visible, as shown in Fig. 8.10. Clicking on either of the downward-pointing arrows then results in the accompanying list being displayed, as shown in Figs. 8.11 (a) and (b).
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Fig. 8.9
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Fig. 8.11 (a)
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Multidimensional arrays are declared and processed in much the same manner as one-dimensional arrays. The following example illustrates the use of multidimensional arrays.
EXAMPLE 8.11 DEVIATIONS ABOUT AN AVERAGE
In this example we will enter a list of n numbers and calculate their average, using the well-known formula average = (x1 + x2 + . . . + xn) / n where x1, x2, x3, etc., represent the individual numbers. We will then calculate the deviation of each number about the average, where the deviation is determined as di = xi average for i = 1, 2, 3, . . . , n. The deviations tell us by how much each number differs from the average (either above, when the deviation is positive, or below, when the deviation is negative). In order to compute the deviations, we must save the individual x-values until after the average has been calculated. We will therefore save the x-values within an array. We will also save the deviations so that they can be displayed at a later time, along with the original x-values. Hence, we will utilize a single two-dimensional array, with n rows and two columns. The first column will contain the x-values, and the second column will contain the corresponding deviations. We could display the results in two combo boxes if we wished, as in the last example. Instead, however, let us display the results using the Print statement, which was discussed in Sec. 2.11. This allows us to display the data in adjacent columns, where they can easily be compared. The use of the Print statement also provides a concise, convenient way to label the calculated results at the end. We begin with the preliminary layout shown in Fig. 8.12. The three command buttons will again represent the Go button (which will carry out all of the calculations), the Clear button and the End button, as in the last example. The right portion of the form remains empty, in order to provide space for the final results.
Fig. 8.12
Let us again assign the initial values to the control properties within event procedure Form_Load, as in the last example. The event procedure, and its accompanying declarations, are shown below. Notice that the array declaration restricts us to no more than 10 data points. Also, note that command button Command2 (the Clear button) is initially disabled, to prevent the user from attempting to clear an array that does not contain any data.
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Option Base 1 Dim x(10, 2) As Double, i As Integer, n As Integer Private Sub Form_Load() Form1.Caption = "Deviations About an Average" Label1.Caption = "Deviations About an Average" Label1.FontSize = 12 Label1.Alignment = 2 'Center Command1.Caption = "Go" Command1.FontSize = 10 Command2.Caption = "Clear" Command2.FontSize = 10 Command2.Enabled = False Command3.Caption = "End" Command3.FontSize = 10 End Sub
We now turn our attention to command button Command1, which enters the data, calculates and average and a set of deviations, and displays the results. We also determine the sum of the deviations within Command1, as a check (the deviations should sum to zero if the calculations are carried out correctly). Here is event procedure Command1_Click.
Private Sub Command1_Click() Dim Prompt As String Dim Sum As Double, Average As Double n = Val(InputBox("How many values ")) If (n > 10) Then MsgBox ("ERROR - n cannot exceed 10. Exit Sub End If
Please try again.")
'Calculate the Average Sum = 0 For i = 1 To n Prompt = "Please enter a value for i = " & Str(i) x(i, 1) = Val(InputBox(Prompt)) Sum = Sum + x(i, 1) Next i Average = Sum / n Command2.Enabled = True 'Calculate the Deviations About the Average Sum = 0 For i = 1 To n x(i, 2) = x(i, 1) - Average Sum = Sum + x(i, 2) Next i
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