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(chkLanguage(n).Move) locates the new entry to its desired position beneath the other languages rather than in the upper left-hand corner. This is followed by two additional commands that assign a caption (New) and cause the new array element to be visible. This entire sequence, beginning with the Load command, is then repeated for the new entry in control array lblHello. Case 3 (Delete) uses the Unload command to delete the new control array elements. (Remember that Unload can be used only to delete control array elements created at run time.) The value assigned to n is then adjusted downward to reflect the new array size. Fig. 8.28 shows the result of first clicking on the Add button, then selecting three check boxes, including New, and then clicking on Go. Clicking on Delete then causes the last entry to disappear, as shown in Fig. 8.29.
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Fig. 8.29
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Before leaving this example, we mention that it is somewhat contrived, as it is intended to illustrate the use of a shared event procedure and the use of the Load and Unload statements. In reality, a program that allows the user to add a greeting in a new language would most likely be a bit more sophisticated in particular, it should include the following features: 1. Ask the user where the new entry will be located (above or below an existing entry in the list of languages). 2. Prompt the user for the new language. 3. Prompt the user for the corresponding greeting. (The location of the greeting can be determined automatically, once the location of the new language is determined.) 4. If the new entry is later deleted, any empty space that might be created by the deletion should be removed by moving all succeeding entries higher up in the list. Or, carrying this argument one step further, it would be nice to locate the new entry automatically without any user input, based upon its proper location within the alphabetized listing of the languages. We leave these enhancements as exercises for the user.
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8.8 LOOPING WITH For Each-Next The For Each-Next structure is a convenient looping mechanism when working with arrays, particularly when it is unclear how many elements are in an array (because the program logic may have resulted in the addition or deletion of array elements). In general terms, the For Each-Next structure is written as
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For Each index In array name . . . . . . . .
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executable statements
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This structure may be used with either static or dynamic arrays. In either case, the index must be a variant. The For Each-Next structure is equivalent to the simplest form of the more commonly used For ToNext loop originally discussed in Sec. 3.6; i.e.,
For index = value1 To value2 . . . . . . . .
executable statements
. . . . . . . . Next index
However, the For To-Next structure requires that value1 and value2 be known explicitly, whereas For EachNext does not. The For Each-Next structure is not restricted to arrays. It can also be used with other more advanced Visual Basic objects, though this topic is beyond the scope of our present discussion.
EXAMPLE 8.20
Here is a Visual Basic code segment that sums the elements in an array, using a For Each-Next loop.
Option Base 1 Dim x() As Integer, Sum As Integer, i As Variant . . . . . ReDim x(10) For i = 1 To 10 x(i) = i Next i Sum = 0 For Each i In x Sum = Sum + x(i) Print x(i), Sum Next I Print Print "Final Sum = "; Sum
Note that x is a dynamic array in this example, to illustrate the technique. An ordinary (static) array could have been used instead. The elements of x must be assigned values within a conventional For To-Next loop (or some other means) prior to entering the For Each-Next loop. Thus, we cannot use the simpler code segment
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