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CHAPTER 2 Document Type De nitions
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and thus optional. The same goes for genre, with perhaps medium as an attribute or an alternate genre value. As we add music, director, and most of all, cast to the elements, the structure of the DTD and the XML documents begins to take shape. Let s look at the element list so far: title year genre director distributor cast music We ve dropped several earlier list items from elements and changed them to attributes. This evolution of the DTD is not unusual because it will clarify the structure of the DTD. If we are creating a DTD for our own XML documents, we can continue to adjust the structure as we see t as long as the XML is still valid. However, the time spent in planning the DTD will pay o in the long run as more and more documents are designed using the DTD without requiring any modi cation. It is like the old carpenter s adage, Measure twice and cut once.
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Attribute Structure
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We should begin our examination of attributes by looking at a few of the rules for their use and a few conventions as well. The attribute structure allows us to qualify an element and further re ne or de ne the data it conveys. First, attributes are not mandatory. They may be declared as such or they can be optional. This is stated in the element declaration itself by referencing an attribute to an element by name; for example: <!ELEMENT title (#PCDATA)> <!-- Declare an attribute alternate_title for title element --> <!ATTLIST title alternate_title CDATA #IMPLIED> What this says to the parser is that for the title element, we can have an alternate_title attribute that consists of CDATA (character data) and is optional (indicated by the notation #IMPLIED). If we would like to include a default value, such as none, we would replace #IMPLIED with the string none. Second, we can use multiple ATTLIST statements to declare multiple attributes for the same element. For more than one attribute, we would list them all, referencing the element name and declaring a unique attribute name. Recall that in the original outline we noted language, alternate_title, country, certi cation, and runtime as potential attributes for the title element. Expanding on the previous markup, the attribute list for motionpicture becomes
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CHAPTER 2 Document Type De nitions
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<!ELEMENT <!ATTLIST <!ATTLIST <!ATTLIST <!ATTLIST <!ATTLIST title title title title title title (#PCDATA)> language CDATA #IMPLIED> alternate_title CDATA #IMPLIED> country CDATA #IMPLIED> certification CDATA #IMPLIED> runtime #IMPLIED>
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Attributes might be set as required or optional or have a xed value. In our example, we use #IMPLIED, which makes the attribute optional. To require the attribute, we replace #IMPLIED with #REQUIRED, and if the attribute is not present, the parser will return an error. So far all the attributes for title have the same datatype, which is CDATA. However, we can indicate another datatype during declaration, such as PCDATA, ID, or ENTITY. For our example, CDATA is su cient, although we might be able to use a reference or two as shorthand. Later in this section we will discuss the various appropriate datatypes. This structure is repeated for each element in turn, setting the various datatypes and adjusting the default values to suit the data contained. For the motionpicture element and its child elements, we see a structure like so: <!ELEMENT motionpicture (title, year, genre, director)> <!ELEMENT title (#PCDATA)> <!ATTLIST title language CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ATTLIST title alternate_title CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ATTLIST title country CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ATTLIST title certification #IMPLIED> <!ATTLIST title runtime #IMPLIED> <!ELEMENT year (#PCDATA)> <!ATTLIST year academy_awards CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ATTLIST year distributor CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ELEMENT genre (#PCDATA)> <!ATTLIST genre category CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ATTLIST genre medium CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ELEMENT director (#PCDATA)> <!ATTLIST director director_of_photography CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ATTLIST director cinematographer CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ATTLIST director editor CDATA #IMPLIED> Some of the qualities attributes possess are  The name of the element  The namespace of the element/attribute
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