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Maker QR Code ISO/IEC18004 in Software Document Type De nitions

CHAPTER 2 Document Type De nitions
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Create a DTD and an XML document for a simple music collection. 2.1 Use the artist s name, the name of the work, the genre of the work, and any other details. 2.2 De ne elements and attributes. 2.3 Create a DTD (in-line). 2.4 Create the prologue for the document. 2.5 Create a well-formed XML document.
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Answers to Review Questions
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2.1 In standard URI syntax, either as a local path or fully quali ed URI. 2.2 Yes, there can be multiples as long as namespace conventions are observed. 2.3 The element. 2.4 Elements provide the basic building blocks of the document; attributes further describe elements. 2.5 Yes, it is required for validation. 2.6 The elements are declared within the XML document. 2.7 a. A DTD is required for an XML document to be valid. 2.8 By referencing the address in the processing instructions. 2.9 Examples: academics, aerospace, automotive, computers and electronics, nancial services, health care, insurance, petrochemicals, retail, telecommunications, and utilities/energy. 2.10 Yes, just like any other document. 2.11 True. 2.12 NOTATION. 2.13 d. All of the above. 2.14 A parameter entity is identi ed by placing a percent sign and a space (% ) in front of its name in the declaration. 2.15 No, they are more speci c and common to SGML. 2.16 * is a wildcard meaning one, many, or none; , separates list items; means one or none; and| means alternation (or). 2.17 Only if #REQUIRED. 2.18 #IMPLIED.
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CHAPTER 2 Document Type De nitions
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2.1 Determine the logical structure of the XML document. Decide on the root element, any other elements, and attributes. In this case, use CD as the root. 2.2 The elements will be title, song, artist, and composer. The attributes will be genre, year, and length. 2.3 Here is a suggested DTD and the element order: <!ELEMENT <!ELEMENT <!ELEMENT <!ELEMENT <!ELEMENT <!ELEMENT <!ELEMENT <!ATTLIST <!ATTLIST <!ATTLIST CD (title, artist+, song*)> title (#PCDATA)> artist (( rstname*, lastname) | group )> rstname (#PCDATA)> lastname (#PCDATA)> group (#PCDATA)> song (#PCDATA)> song genre CDATA #IMPLIED> song year CDATA #IMPLIED> song length CDATA #IMPLIED>
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2.4 < xml version="1.0" standalone="yes" encoding="UTF-8" >. 2.5 An XML document using the in-line DTD: < xml version="1.0" standalone="yes" encoding="UTF-8" > <!DOCTYPE title [ <!ELEMENT cd (title, artist+, song*)> <!ELEMENT title (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT artist (( rstname*, lastname) | group )> <!ELEMENT rstname (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT lastname (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT group (#PCDATA)> <!ELEMENT song (#PCDATA)> <!ATTLIST song genre CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ATTLIST song year CDATA #IMPLIED> <!ATTLIST song length CDATA #IMPLIED> ]> <cd> <title>Beautiful Maladies</title> <artist> < rstname>Tom</ rstname> <lastname>Waits</lastname> </artist> <song genre="urban folk" year="1987" length="2:42"> Hang on St. Christopher</song> <song genre="urban folk" year="1987" length="3:51"> Temptation</song> <song genre="urban folk" year="1985" length="3:45"> Clap Hands</song> </cd>
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CHAPTER 3 Schemas
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</class> <class> <title>XHTML Part II</title> <period name="Session 1">110</period> <period name="Session 2">89</period> <period name="Session 3">122</period> </class> <class> <title>XHTML Part III</title> <period name="Session 1">87</period> <period name="Session 2">44</period> <period name="Session 3">77</period> </class> <class> <title>An Introduction to XML</title> <period name="Session 1">101</period> <period name="Session 2">88</period> <period name="Session 3">112</period> </class> <class> <title>Transforming XML with XSLT</title> <period name="Session 1">90</period> <period name="Session 2">69</period> <period name="Session 3">102</period> </class> <class> <title>XML Content Management and Delivery</title> <period name="Session 1">67</period> <period name="Session 2">55</period> <period name="Session 3">82</period> </class> </enrollment> The following would be a corresponding XML Schema document: <schema xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:enr="http://www.lanw.com/namespaces/ enrollment" targetNamespace=" http://www.lanw.com/namespaces/enrollment"> <element name="enrollment"> <complexType> <element ref="enr:class" minOccurs="1" maxOccurs="unbounded"/> </complexType> </element> <element name="class"> <complexType>
  All elements must be nested correctly. Elements and attributes are case-sensitive.
CHAPTER 3 Schemas
NAMESPACES
Whereas DTDs are not namespace-aware, XML Schema takes advantage of namespaces and uses them often. There are two schema-dedicated namespaces: http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema. Namespace used for W3C XML Schema elements. This namespace can be used as a default namespace or with an xsd pre x. If you use the xsd pre x, every schema element needs to adorn the pre x as well (for example, <xsd:element>...</xsd: element>). http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance. Namespace used for W3C XML Schema extensions employed in instance documents. This namespace should be de ned with an xsi pre x. You do not need to use this namespace unless you will be using XML Schema extensions.
In addition to the two schema-dedicated namespaces, you can declare your own namespaces to correspond with the declared elements and attributes. Using what is known as a target namespace, you can de ne a namespace to which the corresponding XML document should adhere. For example, if you want an XML document to adhere to a particular namespace (see the following example), such as http://www.lanw.com/namespace/enrollment, you can de ne that requirement using a target namespace in the corresponding schema document. For example, you could create the following XML document: < xml version="1.0" > <enrollment xmlns="http://www.lanw.com/namespace/enrollment"> <class> <title>XHTML Part I</title> <period name="Session 1">125</period> <period name="Session 2">67</period> <period name="Session 3">115</period> </class> <class> <title>XHTML Part II</title> <period name="Session 1">110</period> <period name="Session 2">89</period> <period name="Session 3">122</period> </class> </enrollment> A DTD does not support namespaces, and although you can de ne an xmlns attribute with a xed value (for example, <!ATTLIST enrollment xmlns CDATA FIXED "http://www.lanw.com/namespace/enrollment">), it
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