Developing with String Objects and Their Methods in Java

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Developing with String Objects and Their Methods
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11. You will see that two bugs are returned. We are concerned with the first one. Drill down in the window that shows the bugs (Bugs | Performance | [ ]). The application will detail the warning and show you the source code with the line in error highlighted. 12. Fix the bug.
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Methods of the String Class
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Several methods of the String class are commonly used. The common methods, charAt, indexOf, length, replace, startsWith, endsWith, substring, and trim were chosen by Sun to be included on the exam. These methods are detailed in Figure 3-2 and in the following section. Coming up, we will be providing a description of each method, followed by the method declarations and associated examples. First, consider the following string:
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String pirateMessage = " Buried Treasure Chest! ";
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The string has two leading blank spaces and one trailing blank space. This is important in relationship to the upcoming examples. The string is shown again in Figure 3-3 with the index values shown in relationship to the individual characters.
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Programming with Java Operators and Strings
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FIgURE 3-2
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String + charAt(int) : char + endsWith(String) : boolean + indexOf(int) : int + indexOf(int, int) : int + indexOf(String) : int + indexOf(String, int) : int + length() : int + replace(char, char) : String + replace(CharSequence, CharSequence) : String + startsWith(String, int) : boolean + startsWith(String) : boolean + substring(int) : String + substring(int, int) : String + trim() : String
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Commonly used methods of the String class
Let s use each method to perform some action with the string pirateMessage.
The charAt Method
The String class s charAt method returns a primitive char value from a specified int index value in relationship to the referenced string object. There is one charAt method declaration:
public char charAt(int index) { }
Examples:
/* Returns the 'blank space' character from location 0 */ char c1 = pirateMessage.charAt(0); /* Returns the character 'B' from location 2 */ char c2 = pirateMessage.charAt(2); /* Returns the character '!' from location 23 */ char c3 = pirateMessage.charAt(23); /* Returns the 'blank space' character from location 24 */ char c4 = pirateMessage.charAt(24);
FIgURE 3-3 B 0 1 2 u 3 r 4
SCJA string detailing blanks
i 5 e 6 d 7 8 T 9 r e a s u r e C h e s t !
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Developing with String Objects and Their Methods
The indexOf Method
The String class s indexOf methods return primitive int values representing the index of a character or string in relationship to the referenced string object. Four indexOf method declarations exist:
public public public public int int int int indexOf(int ch) { } indexOf(int ch, int fromIndex) { } indexOf(String str) { } indexOf(String str, int fromIndex) { }
Examples:
/* Returns the integer 3 as it is the first 'u' in the string. */ int i1 = pirateMessage.indexOf('u'); // 3 /* Returns the integer 14 as it is the first 'u' in the string past location 9. */ int i2 = pirateMessage.indexOf('u', 9); // 14 /* Returns the integer 13 as it starts at location 13 in the string. */ int i3 = pirateMessage.indexOf("sure"); // 13 /* Returns the integer -1 as there is no Treasure string on or past location 10 */ int i4 = pirateMessage.indexOf("Treasure", 10); // -1! /* Returns the integer -1 as there is no character u on or past location 100 */ int i5 = pirateMessage.indexOf("u", 100); // -1!
The length Method
The String class s length method returns a primitive int value representing the length of the referenced string object. There is one length method declaration:
public int length() { }
Examples:
/* Returns the string's length of 25 */ int i = pirateMessage.length(); // 25
3:
Programming with Java Operators and Strings
The String class uses the length method (for example, string .length()). Arrays reference an instance variable in their state (for example, array .length).Therefore, the string methods use the set of parentheses to return their length, and arrays do not.This is a gotcha that you will want to look for on the exam.
// Use of String's length method String string = "box"; string.length(); // 3 // Use of array's length attribute String[] stringArray = new String[3]; stringArray.length; // 3
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