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Encapsulation
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<<interface>> Drivable
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Object class. The PassengerVehicle class also implements the Drivable
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interface. In an example like this, the SportsCar class has access to all the visible methods and instance variables in both the PassengerVehicle class and the Car class. The SportsCar class must also implement any methods that were unimplemented, including the ones required by the Drivable interface.
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Encapsulation
Exam Objective 1.4 Describe information hiding (using private attributes and methods), encapsulation, and exposing object functionality using public methods; and describe the JavaBeans conventions for setter and getter methods. Encapsulation is the concept of storing data together with methods that operate on that data. Objects are used as the container for the data and code. This section discusses the principles of encapsulation and how it should be applied as a developer.
7:
Understanding Class Inheritance
Encapsulation allows for data and method hiding. This concept is called information hiding. Information hiding makes it possible to expose a public interface while hiding the implementation details. Finally, this section will explore the JavaBean conventions for creating getter and setter methods. These are the methods used to read and modify properties of a Java object. This section will expose the reader to some good basic design principles that should be used with the Java language. The SCJA exam will require an understanding of these principles. These conventions will be used on the exam even when the question is not directly related to it. Understanding them thoroughly will help in understanding many questions.
good Design with Encapsulation
The fundamental theory of an object-oriented language is that software is designed by creating discrete objects that interact to make up the functionality of the application. Encapsulation is the concept of storing similar data and methods together in discrete classes. In many nonobject-oriented languages there is no association between where the data is and where the code is. This can increase the complexity of maintaining the code because oftentimes the variables that the code is using are spread apart over the code base. Bugs in the code can be hard to find and resolve due to different remote procedures using the same variables. Encapsulation tries to solve these problems. It creates easier to read and maintainable code by grouping related variables and methods together in classes. Object-oriented software is very modular, and encapsulation is the term used for creating these modules. Encapsulation allows for information hiding. Information hiding will be covered in detail in the next section. A well-encapsulated class is one that has a single clear purpose. This class should only contain the methods and variables that are needed to fulfill its purpose. For example, if a class was intended to represent a television, it should contain variables such as currentChannel, volume, and isPoweredOn. A Television class would also have methods such as setChannel(int channel) or setVolume(int volume). These variables and methods are all related. They are specific to the properties and actions needed to create a Television class. The Television class would not contain methods such as playDVD(); this should be contained in a separate DVD class. Encapsulation is about creating well-defined classes that have a clear purpose. These classes contain all the data and methods needed to perform their intended functions.
Encapsulation
Encapsulation is defined slightly different depending on the source. Sometimes the definition is that encapsulation is solely about storing related data and methods together in a class. Other places will define encapsulation to also include information hiding of the implementation details.
Access Modifiers
Access modifiers are the keywords that define what can access methods and instance variables. The three access modifiers are private, protected, and public. These all change the default level of access. The default access level does not use a keyword and is assigned to a method or instance variable when neither private, protected, nor public is used, and the area is left blank. Access modifiers are an important concept in object-oriented languages. They allow the implementation details to be hidden in a class. The developer can choose specifically what parts of a class are accessible to other objects. Most of the code examples in the book use the default access level. This was done for clarity in the examples. The SCJA exam will focus on the different effects that the public and private modifiers have. The topics listed next will be covered in the following subsections:
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