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Optical Sensor Quantifying Acidity of Solutions
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With environmental concerns increasing, a method for taking effective measurements of acidity will minimize waste and reduce both the cost and the environmental impact of processing chemicals. Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have developed an optical sensor that measures acid concentration at a higher level than does any current device. The optical high-acidity sensor, reduces the wear generated from acidity measurements and makes possible the economic recycling of acid waste. The high-acidity sensor (Fig. 6.30) consists of a flow cell (about 87.5 mm across) in which two fused silica lenses are tightly mounted across from one another. Fiber-optic cables connect the two lenses to a spectrophotometer. One lens is coated with a sensing material consisting of a polymer that is chemically bound to the lens and an indicator that is physically entrapped with the polymer. Acidic solutions
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FIGURE 6.30 Optical high-acidity sensor.
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flow vertically up through the flow cell. The light from a fixed source in the spectrophotometer is collimated by the coated lens, passes through the acidic solution, and then is focused by the second lens. The amount of light absorbed by the indicator depends on the acidity of the solution. The absorption spectrum of the indicator reflects the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution, which is how acidity is measured. The LANL sensor s sensitivity range acid concentrations of 4 to 12 molar is unmatched by any other acidity measurement technique in current manufacturing. Present techniques are unsuitable for measuring solutions with a negative pH or for measuring chemical processes. With the LANL sensor, high acid concentrations can be measured in 3 min or less, which is 50 times faster than measuring with manual sampling and titration. The sensing material can function in highly acidic solutions for four to six months with calibration less than once a week, and needs to be replaced only once or twice a year. A sensor using similar principles has recently been developed from measuring lower acidity concentrations. The sensor is selective in its measurements because the small pores of the polymer allow only hydrogen ions to pass through the indicator. Metal ions do not form a complex with the indicator under acidic solutions. The sensor is reusable that is, chemically reversible. In short, no comparable product for measuring high acidity is reversible or as sensitive, fast, accurate, and selective as the LANL optical high-acidity sensor. The prime use for the sensor is monitoring highly acidic chemical processes and waste solutions. High-acidity processes are common in preparing metals from ore-mining operations, treating fuel elements from nuclear power plants, manufacturing bulk acid, and metal finishing including passivation and electroplating. For highly acidic processor applications, the LANL sensor will save companies thousands of dollars by improving efficiency and decreasing the time devoted to acid measurements. The sensor can be used on manufacturing lines, allowing control and waste management adjustment to be made before acidity fluctuations become a problem. The sensor will improve efficiency at least 25 percent by eliminating the need to reprocess material processed incorrectly on the first try because its true acidity was not known and controlled. Higher efficiency will mean lower cost and minimal waste products generated; the sensor itself generates no caustic waste. Finally, the sensor s waste monitoring capabilities will help ensure that any discharged waste is environmentally benign. For the 500 acidity measurements done at LANL in 1991, the sensor saved $99,500, a 99.5 percent savings in labor costs in the first year. And, because the sensor generates no waste, 20 L a year of caustic waste was avoided, a 100 percent reduction.
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In recent years, advanced imaging and other computer-related technology have greatly expanded the horizons of basic biological and biochemical research. Currently, such drivers as the growing needs for environmental information and increased understanding of genetic systems have provided impetus to biotechnology development. This is a relatively new specialty in the marketplace; nevertheless, the intensity of worldwide competition is escalating. Collaborative research and development projects among the U.S. government, industry, and academia constitute a major thrust for rapid deployment of research and development. The results can place the nation in a position of world leadership in biotechnology.
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