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Fiber-Optic Pressure Sensors
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A Y-guide probe can be used as a pressure sensor in process control if a reflective diaphragm, moving in response to pressure, is attached to the end of the fiber (Fig. 7.13). This type of pressure sensor has a significant advantage over piezoelectric transducers since it works as a noncontact sensor and has a high frequency response. The pressure signal is transferred from the sealed diaphragm to the sensing diaphragm,
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FIGURE 7.13 Schematic diagram of a ber-optic pressure sensor using a Y-guide probe with a diaphragm attached.
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which is attached to the end of the fiber. With a stainless-steel diaphragm about 100 m thick, hysteresis of less than 0.5 percent and linearity within 0.5 percent are obtained up to the pressure level of 3 105 kg/m2 (2.94 MPa) in the temperature range of 10 to +60 C. The material selection and structural design of the diaphragm are important to minimize drift. Optical-fiber pressure sensors are expected to be used under severe environments in process control. For example, process slurries are frequently highly corrosive, and the temperature may be as high as 500 C in coal plants. The conventional metal diaphragm exhibits creep at these high temperatures. In order to eliminate these problems, an all-fused-silica pressure sensor based on the microbending effect in optical fiber has been developed (Fig. 7.14). This sensor converts the pressure applied to the fused silica diaphragm into an optical intensity modulation in the fiber. A pressure sensor based on the wavelength filtering method has been developed. The sensor employs a zone plate consisting of a
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FIGURE 7.14 Fiber-optic microbend sensor.
Stainless steel flange Fused-silica diaphragm Optical contact Fused-silica based plate Stainless steel flange S.S. tubes Optical fibers
External pressure
Graphite Optical fibers
Seven
reflective surface, with a series of concentric grooves at predetermined spacing. This zone plate works as a spherical concave mirror whose effective radius of curvature is inversely proportional to the wavelength. At the focal point of the concave mirror, a second fiber is placed which transmits the returned light to two photodiodes with different wavelength sensitivities. When broadband light is emitted from the first fiber to the zone plate, and the zone plate moves back and forth relative to the optical fibers in response to the applied pressure, the wavelength of the light received by the second fiber is varied, causing a change in the ratio of outputs from the two photodiodes. The ratio is then converted into an electrical signal, which is relatively unaffected by any variations in parasitic losses.
Nano-Positioning Capacitive Metrology Sensors
The nano-positioning capacitive sensor (Fig. 7.15) provides fast response, and precise trajectory control. It is capable of providing digital controllers with a fast fiber-link interface and an ID-chip for automatic calibration functions. It provides a resolution of 0.1 nm.
Nano-Capacitive Positioning Sensors
Single-electrode capacitive sensors are direct metrology devices. They use an electric field to measure the change in capacitance between the probe and a conductive target surface, without any physical contact. This makes them free of friction, and hysteresis, and provides
FIGURE 7.15
A nano-positioning capacitive sensor.
Industrial Sensors and Control
high-phase fidelity and bandwidth. The selectable bandwidth setting allows the user to adapt the system to different applications. For the highest accuracy and sub-nanometer resolution, the bandwidth can be limited to 10 Hz. For high-dynamics measurements, a bandwidth of up to 6.6 kHz is possible, with a resolution still in the 1-nm range. The user can choose a measurement range from 20 to 500 m, depending on the nominal measurement range of the selected sensor. The ten-channel system provides different extended measuring ranges for each selected sensor. The capacitive sensor s measuring capacitance is the metrology system for most nano-positioning applications. They are absolutemeasuring high-dynamics devices. The capacitive sensors / control electronics use a high-frequency AC excitation signal for enhanced bandwidth and drift-free measurement stability (Fig. 7.16). The electronics of the capacitive position sensor incorporate an innovative design providing superior linearity, low sensitivity to cable capacitance, low background noise, and low drift. The Integrated Linearization System (ILS) compensates for influences caused by errors, such as non-parallelism of the plates. A comparison between a conventional capacitive position sensor system and the results obtained with the ILS is shown in Fig. 7.17. When nano-capacitance sensors are used with digital controllers, which add polynomial linearization techniques, a positioning linearity of up to 0.003 percent is achievable. The travel range is 15 m; the gain 1.5 m/V. Linearity is better than 0.02 percent; even higher linearity is achievable with digital
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