how to create barcode in vb.net 2008 FIGURE 7.16 A 15- m piezo nano-positioning stage with an integrated capacitive position sensor. in Software

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FIGURE 7.16 A 15- m piezo nano-positioning stage with an integrated capacitive position sensor.
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0.20 Nonlinearity (%)
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ILS 0.05 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
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FIGURE 7.17 The linearity of a conventional capacitive position sensor system versus ILS (Integrated Linearization System), shown before digital linearization.
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controllers. Figure 7.18 shows the linearity of a piezo flexure nanopositioning stage with an integrated capacitive position sensor operated in closed-loop mode with an analog controller. All errors contributed by the mechanics, PZT drive, sensors and electronics are included in the resulting linearity of better than 0.02 percent. Even higher linearity is achievable with digital controllers. The long-term stability of the nano-capacitive position sensor and electronics design is shown in Fig. 7.19. They enable direct measurement of the moving platform and are especially well-suited for multiaxis measurements in parallel metrology configurations. Parallel metrology means that the controller monitors all controlled degrees of freedom relative to ground, a prerequisite for active trajectory control. The capacitive sensors also provide high linear accuracy.
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10 8 6 Deviation x/nm 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 Input/V 6 7 Forward Backward 8 9 10
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FIGURE 7.18 Linearity of a 15- m piezo nano-positioning stage operated with advanced control electronics.
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0.5 Drift/nm 0 0.5 1 0
1.5 Time/h
FIGURE 7.19 Measurement stability of a capacitive position sensor control board with a 10-pF reference capacitor over 3.5 hours.
Electrode Geometry, Sensor Surface Flatness, and Finish
During sensor production, great care must be taken to maintain critical mechanical tolerances. Measuring surfaces are diamond-tool machined using sophisticated process control techniques. The result is the smooth, ultra-flat, mirrored surfaces required to obtain the highest resolution commercially available. The target and probe plates are configured in such a way that the sensor capacitance in air is 10 pF at the nominal measuring distance. This means that one sensor electronics module can operate all sensor range models without modification.
Special Design Eliminates Cable Influences
When measuring distance by detection of capacitance changes, fluctuations in the cable capacitance can have an adverse effect on accuracy. This is why most capacitive measurement systems only provide satisfactory results with short well-defined cable lengths. Nanocapacitance systems use a special design that eliminates cable influences, permitting use of cable lengths of up to 3 m without difficulty. For optimum results, it is recommended that calibration of the sensor-actuator system be done by Metrology Laboratories. Longer distances between sensor and electronics can be spanned with special loss-free digital transmission protocols.
7.9 Materials Achieving Greater Accuracy
The best measurements are obtained when the coefficient of thermal expansion of the sensor and the substrate to which it is affixed are as
Seven
Material B
Material A Material A Material A
Material B
Material B Temperature coefficient A > B, d0 < 0
FIGURE 7.20 (a) The optimum match between sensor material and environment. (b) The CTE of sensor material and environment are different. Buckling can reduce sensor atness and accuracy.
nearly equal as possible (Fig. 7.20a). If they differ, temperature changes lead to mechanical stress and deformation, which can compromise accuracy (Fig. 7.20.b). It is the material choice that affects performance, not the absolute value of the temperature coefficient. A lowtemperature coefficient in a sensor mounted on a stainless steel stage will thus give poorer results than a steel sensor (Fig. 7.20b).
Mounting, Calibration, and Measuring Ranges
The sensors should be mounted with a mid-range distance between the plates equal to the nominal measuring range (Fig. 7.21). The measuring range then comprises 50 to 150 percent of this distance. The corresponding range at the output of the sensor electronics is 10 volts in width. The probe/target capacitance at a distance equal to the nominal measuring range equals that of the 10-pF reference capacitor
0.5 d0
TARGET PROBE
TARGET PROBE
TARGET
PROBE
Closest position
Zero position
Most separated position
FIGURE 7.21 The distance between the probe and target at the center position, with closest spacing and maximum separation.
1.5 d0
Material B
Material A
d0 + d0
Industrial Sensors and Control
1 2 3
50 D-0
D-015
D -0 15
+10 Analog output (V)
D10 0
0 D-
0 -10
100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450
Standard measuring range Extended measuring range
FIGURE 7.22 Measuring ranges of different capacitive position sensors, standard ranges are 1- D-015, 3- D-050, and 4- D-100, while the extended ranges are 2- D016, 5- D050, and 6- D-100.
in the electronics. The nominal range itself can be increased or decreased by selecting a different reference capacitor in the electronics (Fig. 7.22).
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