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Industrial Sensors and Control
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performance is degraded by an excess noise factor (F) compared to a PIN, equation 4. The total spectral noise current for an APD in dark conditions is thus given by equation (1), ID = IDS + IDB M: where IDS is the surface leakage current. in = [2.q IDS + IDB M F B]0.5 (2)
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where q is the electron charge. At higher signal light levels, the detector transitions to the photon shot noise limited regime where sensitivity is limited by photon shot noise on the current generated by the optical signal. Total noise from the APD in illuminated conditions will therefore equal the quadratic sum of the detector noise plus the signal shot noise. For a given optical signal power, Ps, this is given by: in = [2.q IDS + IDB M + R ( ) M Ps F B]0.5 (3)
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In the absence of other noise sources, an APD therefore provides a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), which is worse than a PIN detector with the same quantum efficiency. Noise equivalent power (NEP) cannot be used as the only measure of a detector s relative performance, but rather detector signal-to-noise (SNR) at a specific wavelength and bandwidth should be used to determine the optimum detector type for a given application. The optimum signal-to-noise occurs at a gain M, where total detector noise equals the input noise of the amplifier or load resistor. The optimum gain depends in part on the excess noise factor, F, of the APD, and ranges from M = 50 to 1000 for silicon APDs, and is limited to M = 10 to 40 for germanium and InGaAs APDs.
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Selecting an APD
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APDs are generally recommended for high-bandwidth applications, or where internal gain is needed to overcome high preamplifier noise. The following is a simple guide that can be used to decide if an APD is the most appropriate for one s light detection requirements. Determine the wavelength range to be covered. (See the following section Types of APDs, to determine the specific APD type useful for the wavelength range to be covered.) Determine the minimum size of the detector that can be used in the optical system. Effective optics can often be more costeffective than the use of an overly large PIN or avalanche photodetectors. Determine the required electrical frequency bandwidth of the system; again, over-specifying bandwidth will degrade the SNR of the system.
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7.22.1 Types of APDs
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Avalanche photodiodes are commercially available that span the wavelength range from 300 nm to 1700 nm. Silicon APDs can be used between 300 nm to 1100 nm, germanium between 800 nm and 1600 nm, and InGaAs from 900 nm to 1700 nm. Although significantly more expensive than germanium APDs, InGaAs APDs are typically available with much lower noise currents, exhibit an extended spectral response to 1700 nm, and provide higher frequency bandwidth for a given active area. A germanium APD is recommended for applications in high electromagnetic interference (EMI) environments, where amplifier noise is significantly higher than the noise from an InGaAs APD, or for applications where cost is a primary consideration.
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7.22.2 Understanding the Specifications Responsivity and Gain
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APD gain will vary as a function of applied reverse voltage, as shown in Fig. 7.41. In addition, for many APDs, it is not possible, or practical, to make an accurate measurement of the intrinsic responsivity: Ro( ), at a gain M = 1. It is therefore inappropriate to state typical gain and diode sensitivity at M = 1 as a method for specifying diode responsivity at a given operating voltage.
Gain
150 200 250 Bias voltage (V)
FIGURE 7.41 A typical gain-voltage curve for a silicon APD.
Industrial Sensors and Control
In order to characterize APD response, one must specify APD responsivity (in amps/watt) at a given operating voltage. However, because of diode-to-diode variations in the exact gain voltage curve of each APD, the specific operating voltage for a given responsivity will vary from one APD to another. Manufacturers should therefore specify a voltage range within which a specific responsivity will be achieved. An example of a typically correct specification for diode responsivity, in this case for an InGaAs APD, is as follows: RMIN (1300 nm) = 9.0 A/W, VOP = 50 V to 90 V, M = 10
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