# how to create barcode in vb.net 2008 Dark Current and Noise Current in Software Creation ANSI/AIM Code 128 in Software Dark Current and Noise Current

Dark Current and Noise Current
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As can be seen from the noise equation (Equation 2), the total APD dark current (and the corresponding spectral noise current) is only meaningful when specified at a given operating gain. Dark current at M = 1 is dominated by surface current, and may be significantly less than IDB M Since APD dark and spectral noise currents are a strong function of APD gain, these should be specified at a stated responsivity level. An example of a typically correct specification for diode dark current and noise current in this case, for an InGaAs APD is as follows: ID (R = 9.0A/W) = 10 nA (max), M = 10 iN (R = 6.0 A/W, 1 MHz, 1 Hz BW) = 0.8 pA/ Hz (max), M>5
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Excess Noise Factor
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All avalanche photodiodes generate excess noise due to the statistical nature of the avalanche process. This excess noise factor is generally denoted as F. As shown in the noise equation (Equation 2), F is the factor by which the statistical noise on the APD current (equal to the sum of the multiplied photocurrent plus the multiplied APD bulk dark current)
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exceeds that which would be expected from a noiseless multiplier on the basis of Poissonian statistics (shot noise) alone. The excess noise factor is a function of the carrier ionization ratio, k, where (k) is usually defined as the ratio of the hole to electron ionization probabilities. The excess noise factor may be calculated using the model developed by McIntyre (3), which considers the statistical nature of avalanche multiplication. The excess noise factor is given by: F = kEFF M + (1 kEFF)(1 1/M) (4)
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Therefore, the lower the values of k and M, the lower the excess noise factor. The effective k factor (kEFF) for an APD can be measured experimentally by fitting the McIntyre formula to the measured dependence of the excess noise factor on gain. This is best done under illuminated conditions. It may also be theoretically calculated from the carrier ionization coefficients and the electric field profile of the APD structure. The ionization ratio k is a strong function of the electric field across the APD structure, and takes its lowest value at low electric fields (only in silicon). Since the electric field profile depends upon the doping profile, the k factor is also a function of the doping profile. Depending on the APD structure, the electric field profile traversed by a photogenerated carrier and subsequent avalanche-ionized carriers may therefore vary according to photon absorption depth. For indirect band gap semiconductors such as silicon, the absorption coefficient varies slowly at the longer wavelengths, and the mean absorption depth is therefore a function of wavelength. The value of kEFF, and gain, M, for a silicon APD is thus a function of wavelength for some doping profiles. The McIntyre formula can be approximated for a k < 0.1 and M > 20 without significant loss of accuracy as: F=2+k M (5)
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Also often quoted by APD manufacturers is an empirical formula used to calculate the excess noise factor, given as: F = Mx (6)
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where the value of X is derived as a log-normal linear fit of measured F-values for given values of gain M. This approximation is sufficiently appropriate for many applications, particularly when used with APDs with a high k factor, such as InGaAs and germanium APDs. Table 7.3 provides typical values of k, X, and F for silicon, germanium, and InGaAs APDs.
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