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CHAPTER
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Sensors in Flexible Manufacturing Systems
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8.1 Introduction
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Flexibility has become a key goal in manufacturing, hence the trend toward flexible manufacturing systems. These are designed to produce a variety of products from standard machinery with a minimum of workers. In the ultimate system, raw material in the form of bars, plates, and powder would be used to produce any assembly required without manual intervention in manufacture. Clearly, this is a good breeding ground for robots. However, it should be emphasized that the early FMSs are in fact direct numerical control (DNC) systems for machining. And it must be acknowledged that an NC machine tool is really a special-purpose robot. It manipulates a tool in much the same way as a robot handles a tool or welding gun. Then, with no more than a change in programming, it can produce a wide range of products. Moreover, the controllers for robots and NC machines are almost the same. But for an NC machine to be converted into a self-supporting flexible system, it needs some extra equipment, including a handling device. It then forms an important element in an FMS. The principle of flexible manufacturing for machining operations is that the NC machining cells are equipped with sensors to monitor tool wear and tool breakage. Such cells are able to operate unmanned so long as they can be loaded by a robot or similar device since the
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sensors will detect any fault and shut the operation down if necessary. The requirements can be summarized as: A CNC system with sufficient memory to store many different machining programs. Automatic handling at the machining tool either by a robot or other material handling system. Workpieces stored near the machine to allow unmanned operation for several hours. A guided vehicle system may be employed if workpieces are placed at a designated storage and retrieval system away from the machine. Various sensors to monitor, locate, and/or diagnose any malfunction.
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8.2 The Role of Sensors in FMS
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The monitoring sensor devices are generally situated at the location of the machining process, measuring workpiece surface textures, cutting-tool vibrations, contact temperature between cutting tool and workpiece, flow rate of cooling fluid, electrical current fluctuations, and so on. Data in the normal operating parameters are stored in memory with data on acceptable manufacturing limits. As the tool wears, the tool changer is actuated. If the current rises significantly, along with other critical signals from sensors, a tool failure is indicated. Hence, the machine is stopped. Thus, with the combination of an NC machine, parts storage and retrieval, handling devices, and sensors, the unmanned cell becomes a reality. Since the control system of the NC machine, robot, and unmanned guided vehicles are similar, central computer control can be used effectively. Systems based on these principles have been developed. In Japan, Fanauc makes numerical controllers, small NC and EDM machines, and robots; Murata makes robot trailers as well as a variety of machinery including automated textile equipment; and Yamazaki makes NC machines. In France, Renault and Citroen use FMS to machine gear boxes for commercial vehicles and prototype engine components, respectively, while smaller systems have been set up in many other countries. The central element in establishing an error-free production environment is the availability of suitable sensors in manufacturing. The following represents a summary of sensing requirements in manufacturing applications: Part identification Part presence or absence Range of object for handling
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Single-axis displacement of measurement Two-dimensional location measurement Three-dimensional location measurement
Current Available Sensor Technology for FMS
The currently available sensors for manufacturing applications can be classified into four categories: Vision sensors Photodetector Linear array TV camera Laser triangulation Laser optical time-domain reflectometry Optical fiber Tactile sensors Probe Strain gauges Piezoelectric Carbon material Discrete arrays Integrated arrays Acoustic sensors Ultrasonic detectors and emitters Ultrasonic arrays Microphones (voice control) Passive sensors Infrared Magnetic proximity Ionizing radiation Microwave radar Integrating vision sensors and robotics manipulators in flexible manufacturing systems presents a serious challenge in production. Locating sensors on the manipulator itself, or near the end effector, provides a satisfactory solution to the position of sensors within the FMS. Locating an image sensor above the work area of a robot may cause the manipulator to obscure its own work area. Measurement of the displacement of the end effector also may suffer distortion since
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