how to create barcode in vb.net 2008 Large Surface Measurements in Software

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Large surface measurements achieve more accuracy than those made on small surfaces (Fig. 8.20). Whether a surface is large or small, the
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Sensors in Flexible Manufacturing Systems
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FIGURE 8.19
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Standoff.
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FIGURE 8.20
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Large surface measurements.
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Frequency, kHz 20 40 80
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TABLE 8.1 Correlation Functions of Typical Standoff d, Wavelength s ,
and Frequency f
Frequency f, kHz Wavelength s, mm Minimum area of surface, mm2 TABLE 8.2
20 17 275
40 8 70
80 4 20
Correlation of Minimum Size of Large Surface, Frequency, and Wavelength
accuracy depends on the wavelength of the sound waves selected. A large surface must be at least one wavelength distance on each side (Table 8.2). The large surface being measured should change its dimension perpendicular to the surface, in the same direction as the sound wave emitted from the sound source (Fig. 8.21).
Eight
FIGURE 8.21 The large surface being measured should change its dimension perpendicular to the surface.
FIGURE 8.22
Sensitivity to dimension changes.
Sensitivity of Measurements
The sensitivity of the measurements to dimension changes is five or ten times greater when the change is in the same direction as the emitted sound wave (Fig. 8.22).
Small Surfaces
Small surfaces can be measured as long as the robot end effector carrying the sensor array directs the sound wave from the side of the object (Fig. 8.23). Small surfaces are either a small portion of a large object or simply the surface of a small object (Fig. 8.24).
FIGURE 8.23
Small surfaces.
Sensors in Flexible Manufacturing Systems
FIGURE 8.24 Small surfaces are either a small portion of a large object or simply the surface of a small object.
For small surfaces, the sound waves diffract or wrap around the surface rather than diverge from it as in a large surface. Similarly, ocean waves diffract around a rock that is smaller than the distance between crests (Fig. 8.25). Because of diffraction, the sound-vision recognition system is sensitive to the volume of the shape change on a small surface (Fig. 8.26). Volume changes can be positive or negative. Small objects or protrusion from a surface represent positive volume changes, while holes or cavities represent negative volume changes (Fig. 8.27). Measurement accuracy for small surfaces depends on the change in volume of the surface being measured. Listed in Table 8.3 are the smallest volume change that can be detected and the approximate size of a cube that has that volume for representative acoustic frequencies.
Positioning
The sound-vision sensor array system compares a particular par with a reference or standard part and detects the difference between the
FIGURE 8.25 Ocean waves diffract around a rock that is smaller than the distance between crests.
Eight
FIGURE 8.26
Sound-vision recognition system.
FIGURE 8.27
Volume changes can be positive or negative.
Frequency f, kHz Smallest detectable volume change, m Smallest detectable cube, mm3 TABLE 8.3 The Least Measurable Volume
20 kHz 5 10
40 kHz 6 10
80 kHz 8 10 6 3 102
12 102
6 102
two. Objects being inspected either a part or its standard must be located relative to the array with at least the same accuracy as the expected measurement. Rectangular parts are usually located against stops; rotational parts are usually located in V-blocks on the face of the end effector (Fig. 8.28). Rotationally asymmetric parts must be oriented the same way as the standard in order to be compared. The end effector sensor array system can be used to direct a stepper motor to rotate the part until a match between part and standard is found (Fig. 8.29).
Sensors in Flexible Manufacturing Systems
FIGURE 8.28
Diameter and height measurement.
FIGURE 8.29 The end effector sensor can be used to direct a stepper motor to rotate the part until a match between part and standard is found.
End Effector Linear Variable-Displacement Transformer Sensor
Sensing capability in a robot can have widely ranging degrees of sophistication in addition to a variety of sensing media. For instance, sensing capability can vary from a simple photoelectric cell to a complex, threedimensional sound-vision system as described in the previous section. The linear variable-displacement transformer (LVDT) sensor is an electromechanical device that can be attached to a robotic manipulator or can be itself a drive control for a robotic gripper. The LVDT produces an electrical output proportional to the displacement of a separate movable core. It consists of a primary coil and two secondary coils, intricately spaced on a cylindrical form. A free-moving rod-shaped magnetic core inside the coil assembly provides a path for the magnetic flux linking the coils. A cross-section of the LVDT sensor and a plot of its operational characteristics are shown in Figs. 8.30 and 8.31.
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