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Classification of Control Processes
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An engineering integrated system can be defined as a machine responsible for certain production output, a controller to execute certain commands, and sensors to determine the status of the production processes. The machine is expected to provide a certain product as an output, such as computer numerical control (CNC) machines, packaging machines, and high-speed press machines. The controller provides certain commands arranged in a specific sequence designed for a particular operation. The controller sends its commands in the form of signals, usually electric pulses. The machine is equipped with various devices, such as solenoid valves and step motors, that receive the signals and respond according to their functions. The sensors provide a clear description of the status of the machine performance. They give detailed accounts of every process in the production operation (Fig. 2.3). Once a process is executed successfully, according to a specific sequence of operations, the controller can send additional commands for further processes until all processes are executed. This completes one cycle. At the end of each cycle, a command is sent to begin a new loop until the production demand is met.
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FIGURE 2.3
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Sensors providing machine status.
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In an automatic process, the machine, the controller, and the sensors interact with one another to exchange information. Mainly, there are two types of interaction between the controller and the rest of the system: through either an open-loop control system or a closed-loop control system. An open-loop control system (Fig. 2.4) can be defined as a system in which there is no feedback. Motor motion is expected to faithfully follow the input command. Stepping motors are an example of openloop control. A closed-loop control system (Fig. 2.5) can be defined as a system in which the output is compared to the command, with the result being used to force the output to follow the command. Servo systems are an example of closed-loop control.
Disturbance variables Correcting device Control path Mass flow
Controller output
Open sequence of actions
Controller
Input variable
Auxiliary energy
FIGURE 2.4
An open-loop control system.
Disturbance variables Actuator Regulated control path Measuring device Mass flow
Correcting variable
Closed sequence of action Regulated controller Auxiliary energy Actual value (controlled variable) Reference value (command variable)
FIGURE 2.5 A closed-loop control system.
50 2.2
Two
Open- and Closed-Loop Control Systems
In an open-loop control system, the actual value in Fig. 2.4 may differ from the reference value in the system. In a closed-loop system, the actual value is constantly monitored against the reference value described in Fig. 2.5. The mass flow illustrated in Fig. 2.6 describes the amount of matter per unit time flowing through a pipeline that must be regulated. The current flow rate can be recorded by a measuring device, and a correcting device such as a valve may be set to a specific flow rate. The system, if left on its own, may suffer fluctuations and disturbances that will change the flow rate. In such an open-loop system, the reading of the current flow rate is the actual value, and the reference value is the desired value of the flow rate. The reference value may differ from the actual value, which then remains unaltered. If the flow rate falls below the reference value because of a drop in pressure, as illustrated in Fig. 2.7, the valve must be opened further
Disturbance variables Actuator Regulated control path Measuring device Mass flow
Correcting variable Regulated controller Auxiliary energy Actual value (controlled variable) Reference value (command variable)
FIGURE 2.6 Regulation of mass ow.
Measuring device
Correcting device
Correction
Reference value Actual value Comparison between reference value and actual value
FIGURE 2.7
Reference value.
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to maintain the desired actual value. Where disturbances occur, the course of the actual value must be continuously observed. When adjustment is made to continuously regulate the actual value, the loop of action governing measurement, comparison, adjustment, and reaction within the process is called a closed loop.
Understanding Photoelectric Sensors
In order to successfully automate a process, it is necessary to obtain information about its status. The sensors are the part of the control system responsible for collecting and preparing process status data and passing it on to a processor (Fig. 2.8).
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