how to create barcode in vb.net 2008 Selling and Administrative Budget in Software

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Selling and Administrative Budget
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The sales volume of a small plant usually does not provide a large enough margin over production cost to overcome high selling and administrative costs. These nonmanufacturing overhead items must be watched constantly to see that the commitment to fixed costs are kept low. This can be done best by using a selling and administrative budget. All cost items expected in these areas should be listed and classified according to their fixed and variable tendencies. Account
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Product 1 Sales forecast Desired inventories ( /6 annual sales) Product units required Less: beginning inventories Total production required TABLE 11.2
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Product 2 3700 617 4317 400 3917
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3825 637 4462 200 4262
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Required Production Based on Sales Forecast
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classifications in the accounting system should correspond to the classifications used in the budget. At the end of each month, the fixed, variable, and total selling and administrative costs budgeted for the expected level of operation should be adjusted for the level actually reached during that month Actual costs should be matched against these adjusted figures and any sizable differences investigated. If possible, action should be taken to prevent repetition of any unfavorable variances.
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Capital Budget
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Plans for the acquisition of new buildings, machinery, or equipment should be developed annually. A list of amounts to be spent at specified times during the year will provide information for use in a firm s financial budget, as well as cost and depreciation figures to be shown on its projected income statement and balance sheet.
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Financial Budget
Any business owner must be certain that funds are available when needed for plant or equipment replacements or additions. In addition, enough working capital must be available to take care of current needs. This requires a financial plan or budget. Funds for major replacement or addition can ordinarily be planned for on the basis of each expenditure individually. Management must know in each case whether surplus working capital will be available or new long-term financing will be required. If new financing is the answer, a source of funds must be found. Plans for a loan or an additional investment by owners should be made well before the time when the funds will be needed. To have enough working capital at all times without a large oversupply at any time requires detailed planning. Planning the receipts and expenditures for each month must take into consideration expected levels of activity, expected turnover of accounts receivable and accounts payable, seasonal tendencies, and any other tendencies or circumstances that might affect the situation at any time during the budget period. Relating the inflow plus beginning balance to the outflow for each month shows whether a need for outside funds is likely to arise during the budgeted period.
Income Statement and Balance Sheet Projections
From information provided by the four basic budget summaries sales, production, selling and administrative, and financial estimated financial statements can be drawn up. These projected statements bring the details together. They serve to check the expected results of operations and the estimated financial position of the business at the end of the budget period.
E c o n o m i c a n d S o c i a l I n t e re s t s i n t h e Wo r k p l a c e
Planning for Profit
Projection for income statement and balance sheet figures will indicate the profit, return on investment (ROI), and return on assets (ROA) management can expect. For example, these statements in highly abbreviated form may be as follows:
Net profit before interest and taxes Interest cost Net profit after interest Income taxes (40%) Net profit Debt Capital or stock investment Assets $430,000 80,000 350,000 140,000 210,000 1,000,000 2,000,000 $3,000,000
The return of investment (i.e., the profit earned in relation to the value of the capital required to produce the profit), is expected to be $210,000/$2,000,000 = 10.5% Further, the return on assets is expected to be: $258,000/$3,000,000 = 8.6% Note: In this last calculation, the return is calculated after taxes and before the deduction of interest costs. The $258,000 is determined either by adding the after-tax interest cost of 60 percent of $80,000, or $48,000, to the net profit, $210,000, or by subtracting the 40 percent tax on the net profit before interest or taxes of $430,000 from this amount. The 8.6 percent return on assets is increased to a 10.5 percent return on investment as the result of the leverage provided by borrowed funds at an interest of less than 8.6 percent. These ROI and ROA figures may or may not be considered adequate. If they are thought to be inadequate, various parts of the budget should be reviewed to identify possible areas of improvement. In any case, the profit goal should be high enough to provide a reasonable return and at the same time be realistically attainable.
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