how to create barcode in vb.net 2008 (1) End of year 1 2 3 Total TABLE 11.6 in Software

Creation Code 128 Code Set C in Software (1) End of year 1 2 3 Total TABLE 11.6

(1) End of year 1 2 3 Total TABLE 11.6
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(2) Amount to be received $2.00 2.00 3.00 $7.00
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(4) Present value $1.90 1.81 2.59 $6.30
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Application of Present Values to Capital Investment
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Year 1 Sales revenue Less: variable costs Less: fixed costs* Cash flow from production Sales of equipment Net cash flow
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Year 2 $11,000 7,000 2,000 $2,000 0 $2,000
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Not including depreciation charges.
TABLE 11.7
Revenues and Cost Characteristics
of the investment were $6.29 or less and brought in the same amount, the present value of the investment opportunity would be positive. The general rule is that investment opportunities with a positive present value should be taken.
Example. Assume you have an opportunity to buy a piece of equipment for $5000. With this equipment, products can be manufactured with the revenue and cost characteristics described in Table 11.7.
The present value of the cash flows in Table 11.7, computed as in Table 11.6, is $6300. The value of the investment in the opportunity is therefore $6300 $5000, or $1300. This positive investment opportunity value shows that the equipment investment will have a higher rate of return than the 5 percent available on the next best investment (assumed to be a savings account paying 5 percent). The depreciation is not considered a cash flow item and thus should not be included as a cash cost. The example illustrated does not include depreciation charges. In addition, these figures do not include income tax payments (which are a cash flow item). However, the cash flow figures in Table 11.8 do take taxes into account. Once taxes are included, depreciation should be considered as well, since depreciation is tax deductible. This calculation may also be set up as follows:
Net cash flow (ignoring taxes) Less: Income taxes as above Net cash flow $2000 80 $1920 $2000 80 $1920 $3000 80 $2920
The present value is $6092, rather than the $6300 calculated from the earlier figure, which did not include taxes. The value of the investment opportunity, after income taxes, is $1092, which is still higher
E c o n o m i c a n d S o c i a l I n t e re s t s i n t h e Wo r k p l a c e
Year 1 Sales revenue Less: variable production costs Less: fixed production costs (including depreciation) Net profit before taxes Less: income taxes @ 48% Net profit after taxes Cash flow from sales of equipment (add back depreciation) Net cash flow TABLE 11.8 Cash Flow $10,000 $6,000 3,833 167 80
Year 2 $11,000 $7,000 3,833 167 80
Year 3 $12,000 $8,000 3,834 166 80
87 $1,833 $1,920
87 $1,833 $1,920
86 $1,834 $1,920
than what could be earned from a savings account carrying a 5 percent interest rate. The present-value method of analyzing a capital investment opportunity makes it possible to take into account the timing of the expected cash returns and to compare them with those of other investment opportunities. Note that the cash returns are expected values. The probability method discussed earlier is used in calculating them.
Inventory Analysis
Maintaining adequate inventories of raw materials and parts can tie up capital for a manufacturer. Careful management of inventory levels offers possibilities for large cost savings and the release of funds from inventory investment. Two major kinds of costs are associated with maintaining inventories: holding costs and ordering costs. Holding costs are costs associated with inventory investment. They include insurance, taxes, rent on warehouse space, and the opportunity cost of alternative uses of the funds invested in inventory. Ordering costs are the costs of processing purchase requisitions and vendors invoices and of receiving the goods in the warehouse (receiving department salaries, etc.). The economic order quantity (EOQ) is the quantity of goods that should be ordered at one time to ensure the lowest total inventory costs (holding cost plus ordering cost). There is a tradeoff between holding costs and ordering costs. When the order quantity is small and the inventory is kept low, the holding costs are also low. The ordering costs, however, are high, because orders must be placed often and more clerical and receiving department time is needed. When the order quantities are large and inventory is kept high, the holding costs are high (more insurance, taxes, rent), but the ordering
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