how to create barcode in vb.net 2008 Detecting Range with Microwave Sensors in Software

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Detecting Range with Microwave Sensors
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An early-warning military radar system depends on costly microwave sensors. A small yacht may use a microwave sensor selling for less than $1000 to detect targets at ranges up to 5 mi. Regardless of their cost, microwave range sensors for commercial, industrial, and military applications employ essentially the same measuring technique. They transmit a narrow pulse of energy and measure the time required for the return from the target. Since microwave energy propagates at the speed of light, the time for the pulse to reach the target and return is 2 ns per foot of range. If the range to the target is 1 mi, the time required is 10.56 s. Although the microwave power needed is sufficient to raise the sensor temperature to 500 F, the design of the signal processing circuitry to measure the response is not difficult. However, if the target is very close to the transmitter, then the short response time may pose a real problem. At 3 ft, the time response is 6 ns. For 1-in resolution,
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FIGURE 2.102 (a) Direction of motion sensor device. (b) Motion logic away. (c) Direction logic toward.
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the circuitry must be able to resolve 167 ps. This may pose a significant problem. The alternative method to resolve a target at a short range involves changing the frequency of a continuous oscillator. This method is better-suited to industrial applications. An oscillator starting at 10.525 GHz and sweeping at 50 MHz in 10 ms in the 6 ns mentioned earlier will have changed its frequency by: (6 ns 50 MHz/0.01 s) = 30 Hz The returning wave will still be 10.525 GHz. The output from the mixer diode as the sweep continues will be the 30-Hz difference. If this frequency is averaged over time, it is not difficult to resolve a range to 0.001 in. The preceding calculation indicates that the frequency is high for faraway objects and low for targets that are close. This leads to two conclusions: The closer the object is, the lower the frequency, and therefore the longer the measurement will take. The signal processing amplifier should have a gain that increases with frequency. Problems can arise when the target is moving or there are multiple targets in the area of interest. Movement can be detected by comparing consecutive readings and can be used as a discrimination technique. Multiple targets can be defined by narrow-beam antennas to reduce the width of the area of interest. Gain adjustments are also required to eliminate all but the largest target. Audiobandwidth filters may be used to divide the range into sectors for greater accuracy. Other sensor types, such as photoelectric and inductive sensors, may be utilized to measure distances. Inductive sensors are used in tank level measurements. They must be coupled with a moving component that floats on the surface of the substance to be measured. Photoelectric sensors measure position by focusing a beam on a point in space and measuring the reflection on a linear array. This can give very precise measurements over a limited range but is subject to adverse environmental conditions. Photoelectric sensors can focus a camera on a target for a better picture. Ultrasonic sensors may perform the same function, but their range is limited and they can be defeated by a hostile environment. Microwave sensors for measuring range have an impressive array of applications, including measurement of the level of liquid or solid in a tank, sophisticated intrusion alarms, autonomous guided vehicle industrial systems, and noncontact limit switching. In tank level
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FIGURE 2.103
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Tank level sensor.
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sensing in the chemical industry (Fig. 2.103), the microwave sensor is mounted at the top of the tank and measures the distance from that position to the surface of the contents. Since the electronic circuitries can be isolated from the tank contents by a sealed window, it is intrinsically safe. It has the advantage of being a noncontact system, which means there are no moving parts to break or be cleaned. This allows the microwave sensor to be used on aggressive chemicals, liquids, liquefied gases, highly viscous substances, and solids such as grain and coal.
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