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Advances in technology have opened up important new applications for microwave sensors. The expected governmental permission to utilize higher frequencies and the decreasing size of signal processing circuitry will significantly reduce the cost of the sensors and will enable them to detect even smaller targets at a higher resolution. Microwave integrated circuit technology (MICT), presently developed for the Military Microwave Integrated Circuit (MIMIC) program will overflow into the industrial market, causing increases in performance and in analysis capabilities. Consequently, the utilization of computerintegrated manufacturing technology will be broadened.
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Confocal Microscopy inspection equipment is currently used to inspect probe marks, which is designed to handle high throughput, while capturing process excursions with high probability. Once excursions are detected, the data provides probe marks in the anomalous areas. Efficient defect review, characterization, and root-cause analysis require a flexible and interactive tool that can provide both lateral and height measurements, that can revisit and fully describe features in the areas of interest, and that can provide engineers and scientists with timely data so they can correct the problems. The tool should supply the data required for production meetings as well as images that will represent the data to management and remote customers. The tool should allow automated review and give engineers the option of full manual control to devise an effective solution.
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To date, conventional optical review stations and scanning-electron microscopy have served this purpose, giving engineers good lateral measurements and pictures of the features but providing only a rough impression of their volumetric extent. Good depth measurement by these methods requires skillful cross sectioning to view the deepest part of the features, a process that generally delays results for long periods, often for days, with works in progress at a standstill. In the span of only several seconds, advanced confocal profiling systems provide the same height information available from the most careful scanning electron microscope (SEM) cross-section measurement (Fig. 2.104). Cross-sectioning is carried out on the data rather than on the sample, so the untouched wafer can be returned to the process unharmed promptly after determining the disposition. Analysis may be performed under automated recipe control, interactively under recipe guidance, or manually, allowing the engineer to reach the root cause. Images generated by Hyphenated Systems advanced confocal profiling systems provide the same height information available from scanning-electron microscope (SEM) cross-section measurements (Fig. 2.105).
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Advanced focal pro ling providing highly accurate heights.
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FIGURE 2.105 Images (generated by Hyphenated Systems) of advanced confocal pro ling systems provide the same height information available from scanningelectron microscope (SEM) cross-section measurements.
The probe mark is relatively shallow, with the deepest portion less than 500 nm below the pad level.
The mark is deeper and clearly shows a breakthrough to a barrier layer and the underlying dielectric around 1 m beneath the pad surface. (Courtesy of Hyphenated Systems.)
Driving Inspection Requirements
Wire bonding sensor application is by far the predominant interconnect technology for current multichip packages. As manufacturers have gained experience with multichip packages, they have realized the importance of probe-pad integrity. In particular, damage caused by contact between the pad and the electrical test probe (Fig. 2.106) is a primary cause of failure in wire bond interconnects. Failure modes
FIGURE 2.106 Damage caused by contact between the pad and the electrical test probe.
include excessive marking, which interferes with the bond reliability; punch-through, which reduces bond reliability and exposes underlying circuitry to the bonding process; and etch defects, in which overlying passivation is not completely cleared from the bond pad. Another issue of growing importance is vendor accountability. Many devices incorporate chips from different vendors. Corporate integrators do not desire to be held responsible for defects that occurred upstream in the supply chain, and many are implementing incoming probe-mark inspection or imposing requirements for outgoing inspection on their suppliers, or both. Microscopy can provide for the detailed review and characterization of probe marks. In this example, the mark is well resolved in three dimensions, and a breakthrough to underlying layers is clearly shown. (Courtesy of Hyphenated Systems.) Advanced technology nodes (65 nm and below) are also increasing the need for probe-mark inspection. This vulnerability is exacerbated by the relentless efforts to put more circuitry on smaller die and the resulting trend to locate active circuitry beneath bond pads. Another offender in the category of new materials is the use of copper on bond pads. Copper is a highly corrosive material. Copper particulates created during probing can easily damage the circuit, as illustrated in Fig. 2.106. Recent developments in testing technology are also contributing to the demand for probe-mark inspection. There is significant incentive to reduce any risk of damage to probe cards that might be caused by particulate contaminants on the probe pad. A number of manufacturers have implemented pre-probe inspections to minimize this risk. Probes wear during normal use but may be reconditioned or repaired up to a certain point. Careful analysis of probe marks can provide information that signals the need for reconditioning of a probe. Another trend in test technology is the movement of electrical testing upstream, into the fabrication process, to allow faster detection, diagnosis, and correction of defective processes. Though faster feedback is always desirable for process control, the need has become more urgent as the fraction of defects that cannot be detected with conventional in-line inspection techniques has grown at each successive technology node. Limiting, or at least detecting, probe-induced damage in the earlier stages of wafer processing will play an important role in the successful integration of electrical tests in the fabrication process. Probe-mark characterization, as distinct from probe-mark inspection, can help engineers determine appropriate probing parameters during the characterization phase of process development. Probe-mark characterization (Fig. 2.105) relies on detailed threedimensional inspection. Three-dimensional inspection techniques tend to be too slow and expensive for production applications, but
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