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Fiber Optics in Sensors and Control Systems
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FIGURE. 3.43 Re ective mode bifurcate ber optics.
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FIGURE 3.44 Bundle construction.
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Typical bundle construction in a bifurcate employs one of two arrangements of individual fibers. The sending and receiving fibers are arranged either randomly or hemispherically (Fig. 3.44). As a practical matter, there is little, if any, noticeable impact on the performance of a photoelectric system in any of the key parameters such as sensitivity and scan range. Application areas for bundle probes include counting, break detection, shaft rotation, and displacement/proximity sensing.
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Microscopic fiber flaws (Fig. 3.45) such as impurities, bubbles, voids, material absorption centers, and material density variations all diminish the ability of rays of light to propagate down the fiber, causing a
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FIGURE 3.45 Microscopic ber aws.
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FIGURE 3.46 Characteristic absorption curve.
net loss of light from one end of the fiber to the other. All these effects combine to produce a characteristic absorption curve, which graphically expresses a wavelength-dependent loss relationship for a given fiber (Fig. 3.46). The fiber loss parameter is expressed as attenuation in dB/km as follows: Loss = 10 log ( p2/p1) where p2 = light power output and p1 = light power input. Therefore, a 10-dB/km fiber would produce only 10 percent of the input light at a distance of 1 km. Because of their inexpensive lead silicate glass composition and relatively simple processing techniques, bundles exhibit losses in the 500-dB/km range. This is several orders of magnitude greater than a communications-grade fiber, which has a loss of 10 dB/km. The maximum practical length for a bundle is thus only about 3 m. Further, the absence of coating on individual fibers and their small diameter make them susceptible to breakage, especially in vibratory environments. Also, because of fiber microflaws, it is especially important to shield fibers from moisture and contaminants. A fiber exposed to water will gradually erode to the point of failure. This is true of any optical fiber, but is especially true of uncoated fibers in bundles.
Fiber Pairs for Remote Sensing
A viable solution to those design problems that exist with fiber bundles is to use large-core glass fibers that have losses on a par with
Fiber Optics in Sensors and Control Systems
FIGURE 3.47 Pair of bers.
telecommunication fibers. Although its ability to accept light is less than that of a bundle, a 200- or 400- m core diameter plastic clad silica (PCS) fiber provides the ability to place sensing points hundreds of meters away from corresponding electronics. The fiber and the cable construction shown in Fig. 3.47 lend themselves particularly well to conduit pulling, vibratory environments, and general physical abuse. These fibers are typically proof-tested for tensile strength to levels in excess of 50,000 lb/in2. A pair of fibers (Fig. 3.44) is used much like a bundle, where one fiber is used to send light to the sensing point and the other to return light to the detector. The performance limitation of a fiber pair compared to a bundle is reduced scan range; however, lenses may be used to extend the range. A fiber pair may be used in one of two configurations: (1) a single continuous probe (i.e., an unbroken length of cable from electronics to sensing point), or (2) a fiber-optic extension cord to which a standard probe in either a bundle or a fiber pair is coupled mechanically. This allows the economical replacement, if necessary, of the standard probe, leaving the extension cord intact. The typical application for a fiber pair is object detection in explosive or highly corrosive environments (e.g., ammunition plants). In such cases, electronics must be remote by necessity. Fiber pairs also allow the construction of very small probes for use in such areas as robotics, small object detection, thread break detection, and small target rotation.
Fiber-Optic Liquid Level Sensing
Another technique for interfacing with fiber-optic probes involves the use of a prism tip for liquid sensing (Fig. 3.48). Light traveling down one leg of the probe is totally internally reflected at the prismair interface. The index of refraction of air is 1. Air acts as a cladding material around the prism. When the prism contacts the surface of a liquid, light is stripped from the prism, resulting in a loss of energy at the detector. A properly configured system can discriminate between liquid types, such as gasoline and water, by the amount of light lost from the system, a function of the index of refraction of the liquid. This type of sensor is ideal for set point use in explosive liquids, in areas where electronics must be remote from the liquid by tens or hundreds of meters, and where foam or liquid turbulence make other level-sensing techniques unusable.
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