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Networking of Sensors and Control Systems in Manufacturing
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Several versions of MAP have been developed. One difficulty of several has been obtaining agreement among many different countries and vendor groups on a specific standard. Another problem is that the resulting standards are so broad they have become very complex, making it difficult to develop the hardware and software to implement the system and consequently driving up related costs. The early version of MAP addressed some of the OSI layers to a limited degree, and made provision for users to individualize the application layer for a particular use. The latest version of MAP makes an effort to define more completely all the application layer software support as well as the other layers. This has led to continuing disagreements and struggles to produce a protocol that can be adopted by every vendor group in every country to achieve MAP goals. Because of its complexity, MAP compatibility among equipment units, or interoperability, has been a continuing difficulty. MAP has not been applied as rapidly as was initially hoped for by its proponents because of the complexity, costs, and disagreements on how it should be implemented. Assembling a complete set of documentation for MAP is a difficult activity that requires compiling a file of standards organization reports, a number of industry organization reports, and documentation from all the working committees associated with ISO.
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The MAP protocol was developed with several alternatives for physical layer (PhL)1. It can be implemented through what is called a broadband system (Fig. 4.13), and so manufacturing units can talk to one another, transmitted messages are placed on the cable a headend remodulator then retransmits these messages and directs them to the receiving station. The broadband version of MAP has the highest capabilities because it allows several types of communications to take place on the same cabling at the same time. On the other hand, because of its greater flexibility, a broadband system is more complex and more expensive to install. It requires modems and MAP interface equipment for each item of equipment and a head-end remodulator to serve the entire network. The main cable used for broadband is unwieldy (approximately 25 mm in diameter) and is appropriate only for wiring very large factories. Multiple drop cables can be branched off the main cable for the different MAP nodes. Broadband communication can achieve a high data rate of 10 Mb/s and can split the frequency spectrum to allow several different communications to take place simultaneously. As indicated in Fig. 4.14, the three transmit frequencies and the three receive frequencies are separated from one another in the frequency domain. Three different channels can coexist on the MAP network. The headend remodulator transfers messages from the low frequencies to the high frequencies.
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Computer
Computer
Equipment unit RF modem and MAP interface.
Broadband
FIGURE 4.13
Broadband system.
Transmit 1 60 MHz 2 3 96 MHz 1
Receive 2 3 288 MHz
252 MHz
FIGURE 4.14 Broadband frequencies.
Networking of Sensors and Control Systems in Manufacturing
Carrier-Band System for MAP Protocol
Another type of MAP network makes use of a carrier-band approach, which uses somewhat less expensive modems and interface units and does not require heavy duty cable (Fig. 4.15). For a small factory, a carrier-band version of MAP can be much more cost-effective. The carrier-band communication can also achieve a high data rate of 5 to 10 Mb/s, but only one channel can operate on the cable at a given time. A single channel is used for both transmission and reception.
Bridges MAP Protocol
It is possible to use devices called bridges to link a broadband factorywide communication network to local carrier-band networks (Fig. 4.16). The bridge transforms the message format provided on one side to the message formats required on the other. In this sense, a bridge transforms one operating protocol to another.
Equipment unit
Equipment unit
Bridge Broadband system
Carrier-band cable
Computer
Computer
FIGURE 4.15
Carrier-band system for MAP protocol.
Four
Independently selected by system integrator Functional interface Independently selected by vendor Equipment
Application software Function calls or macros
FIGURE 4.16
Bridges system for MAP protocol.
4.10.4 Token Systems for MAP Protocol
In developing MAP, General Motors was concerned with assuring that every MAP mode would be able to claim control of the network and communicate with other nodes within a certain maximum waiting time. Within this waiting time, every node would be able to initiate its required communications. To do this, MAP implements a token passing system (Fig. 4.17). The token in this case is merely a digital word that is recognized by the computer. The token is rotated from node address to node address; a node can claim control of the network and transmit a message only when it holds the token. The token prevents message collisions and also ensures that, for a given system configuration, the maximum waiting time is completely defined (so long as no failures occur). The token is passed around a logic ring defined by the sequence of node addresses, not necessarily by the physical relationships.
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