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Data Acquisition for Sensors and Control Systems in CIM Environments
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The input signals generated by sensors can be fed into an interface board, called an I/O board. This board can be placed inside a PCbased system. As personal computers for CIM have become more affordable, and I/O boards have become increasingly reliable and readily available, PC-based CIM data acquisition has been widely implemented in laboratory automation, industrial monitoring and control, and automatic test and measurement. To create a data acquisition system for sensors and control systems that really meets the engineering requirements, some knowledge of electrical and computer engineering is required. The following key areas are fundamental in understanding the concept of data acquisition for sensors and control systems: Real-world phenomena Sensors and actuators Signal conditioning Data acquisition for sensors and control hardware Computer systems Communication interfaces Software
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Real-World Phenomena
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Data acquisition and process control systems measure real-world phenomena, such as temperature, pressure, and flow rate. These phenomena are sensed by sensors, and are then converted into analog signals that are eventually sent to the computer as digital signals. Some real-world events, such as contact monitoring and event counting, can be detected and transmitted as digital signals directly. The computer then records and analyzes this digital data to interpret real-world phenomena as useful information. The real world can also be controlled by devices or equipment operated by analog or digital signals generated by the computer (Fig. 5.10).
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Sensors and Actuators
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A sensor converts a physical phenomenon such as temperature, pressure, level, length, position, or presence or absence into a voltage, current, frequency, pulses, and so on. For temperature measurements, some of the most common sensors include thermocouples, thermistors, and resistance temperature detectors (RTDs). Other types of sensors include flow sensors, pressure sensors, strain gauges, load cells, and optical sensors.
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Communication Interface Measurement (A/D) Computer System Signal Conditioning Data Acquisition & Control Hardware Real-World Phenomena Transducers & Actuators Control (D/A) Software
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FIGURE 5.10
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Integration of computer-controlled devices.
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An actuator is a device that activates process control equipment by using pneumatic, hydraulic, electromechanical, or electronic signals. For example, a valve actuator is used to control fluid rate for opening and closing a valve.
Signal Conditioning
A signal conditioner is a circuit module specifically intended to provide signal scaling, amplification, linearization, cold junction compensation, filtering, attenuation, excitation, common mode rejection, and so on. Signal conditioning improves the quality of the sensor signals that will be converted into digital signals by the PC s data acquisition hardware. One of the most common functions of signal conditioning is amplification. Amplifying a sensor signal provides an analog-todigital (A/D) converter with a much stronger signal and thereby increases resolution. To acquire the highest resolution during A/D conversion, the amplified signal should be equal to approximately the maximum input range of the A/D converter.
Data Acquisition for Sensors and Control Hardware
In general, data acquisition for sensors and control hardware performs one or more of the following functions: Analog input Analog output Digital input Digital output Counter/timer
5.7.4.1 Analog Input
An analog-to-digital (D/A) converter produces digital output directly proportional to an analog signal input so it can be digitally read by the computer. This conversion is imperative for CIM (Fig. 5.11).
Digital Code D0 Analog Signal Driver D/A Converter D1 D15
FIGURE 5.11
Analog-to-digital converter.
Five
The most significant aspects of selecting A/D hardware are: Number of input channels Single-ended or differential input Sampling rate (in samples per second) Resolution (in bits) Input range (specified as full-scale volts) Noise and nonlinearity
5.7.4.2 Analog Output
A digital-to-analog (D/A) converter changes digital information into a corresponding analog voltage or current. This conversion allows the computer to control real-world events. Analog output may directly control equipment in a process that is then measured as an analog input. It is possible to perform a closed loop or proportional integral-differential (PID) control with this function. Analog output can also generate waveforms in a function generator (Fig. 5.12).
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