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In a wireline network, QoS was guaranteed, since the line feeding from the central office to the residence/business was used for nothing but that service. This is one reason the cost of sustaining a residential subscriber is so high; what is often referred to as
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the last mile is expensive to install and expensive to maintain, with not near enough return to make it profitable. Yet there are many inherent advantages to this type of implementation, for both QoS and security. Access is considered secure, since it is a hard-wired connection from the switch to the device, and unless there has been a physical breach, the party who is accessing the circuit and associated services is assumed to be the legitimate subscriber. This is a challenge for VoIP services, where access is obtained through many different technologies, all vulnerable to security breaches. There are also performance issues in the switched network. Circuits may often sit idle and unused for long periods of time, especially if the network has been engineered poorly. I have spoken with many operators running networks of all sizes who have found entire routes of facilities sitting idle for very lengthy periods of time because of poor engineering practices. This all comes with a cost as well, so poor engineering of facilities results in loss of profit for the operator. This is one of the reasons IP has become attractive to many operators. The savings it represents in many areas is worth the added effort to make them secure and provide the same QoS as their legacy networks. Routing within circuit-switched networks is also quite different than in packet networks. The switches in the network are programmed with routes, dictating which circuits will be used for each call type/destination. The routing is based on the digits dialed, and the routes are hierarchical in nature. This form of routing ensures QoS, because enough circuits can be engineered per route to guarantee available circuits at any time. The unfortunate factor of this routing is that the routes must be engineered for worst-case scenarios (usually the busiest calling day of the year, which is Mother s Day in the U.S.). Of course this means that the network has been engineered for the heaviest of traffic, which occurs once a year. The rest of the time these circuits sit idle. This is the reason many network operators groom and monitor their routes to ensure there are just enough circuits available to support a typical day of traffic, while engineering contingency routes for heavier days. Figure 1-1 shows the switching hierarchy model used in the U.S. This is much flatter than models used prior to the divestiture of the Bell System. Prior to divestiture there were five levels of switching. Each level provided an additional route in the event of congestion at the lower levels. This model was abandoned because of cost postdivestiture. Today s network architecture looks the same worldwide, with two levels of routing. The end office provides the local connection as well as routing within its own region, and the tandem provides connectivity to other regions within the same network. The point of presence (POP) is a U.S. entity providing a gateway function between networks. This could be a function within the tandem switch itself, or a stand-alone function. Long distance and international calls are then routed to gateways connecting to other networks. These international gateways also provide security and some protection to the network, since the connections must be negotiated and approved by the two connecting operators. Without a connection, there is no access to the switched network.
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