how to generate barcode in vb.net 2010 Loose Routing in Software

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Loose routing is always the most favorable from a pure network management perspective, because it uses the resources available with the most economical means. Messages are routed according to available routes and the state of each of those routes. The proxies in the path of the messages become simple routers and do not concern themselves with the state of a session or a subscriber. However, loose routing means that messages for a session are routed using many different routes, making it difficult to correlate messages for a single session. It also
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200 OK
ACK Session in place
BYE 200 OK
200 OK Figure 5.3 Routing example
200 OK
makes it very difficult to support law enforcement agencies, when looking for call data for a specific session. Identifying the route for the signaling messages and capturing the call data could be tricky in these cases. The lr parameter indicates that loose routing is being used. When loose routing is being used, the request-URI remains constant (instead of changing for each hop). The TO and the FROM headers never change either, regardless of the routing method used. These two headers are never used for routing in the SIP network. The VIA header is appended by each proxy as the message is routed through the network. The purpose of the VIA header is loop detection. If a proxy finds its own address in the VIA header, it then knows that this message has already been processed, and the message is looping around the network. This is the only header with addresses that gets appended as the message is routed. Strict routing uses additional headers for recording a route, as we will discuss in the next section. Routing responsibility for the message is left to each proxy along the route. Any single router is only responsible, however, for its leg of the path, and not end-to-end routing. This is not unlike other signaling protocols such as Signaling System #7 (SS7). Figure 5.3 shows routing in a SIP network between a UAC and a UAS. The provisional responses have been excluded for simplicity. Examples follow of what each of the messages in this figure would look like when loose routing is used. The final BYE and 200 OK have been excluded from these examples:
INVITE sip:travis.russell@tcg.com sip/2.0 VIA: SIP/2.0/UDP pchome101@aol.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74gh5
Establishing a Session in SIP
FROM: Deby Russell <sip:deby.russell@aol.com>;tag=9hz34567sl TO: Travis Russell <sip:travis.russell@tcg.com> MAX-FORWARDS: 70 CALL-ID: 82167534@126.18.27.0 CSeq: 10001 INVITE CONTACT: Deby Russell <sip:deby@126.18.27.0> CONTENT-TYPE: application/sdp CONTENT LENGTH: 154
The request is sent from the UAC to the first proxy, which will then append its own address in the VIA header and forward the request to the final destination, which is identified in the request-URI.
INVITE sip:travis.russell@tcg.com sip/2.0 VIA: SIP/2.0/UDP raleigh.bellhead.com;branch=z9hG4bK32ad1 VIA: SIP/2.0/UDP pchome101@aol.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74gh5 FROM: Deby Russell <sip:deby.russell@aol.com>;tag=9hz34567sl TO: Travis Russell <sip:travis.russell@tcg.com> MAX-FORWARDS: 69 CALL-ID: 82167534@126.18.27.0 CSeq: 10001 INVITE CONTACT: Deby Russell <sip:deby@126.18.27.0> CONTENT-TYPE: application/sdp CONTENT LENGTH: 154
Note that there is no RECORD-ROUTE header, and that the request-URI does not change. The proxies simply forward the message according to the request-URI address using any available route.
INVITE sip:travis.russell@tcg.com sip/2.0 VIA: SIP/2.0/UDP losangeles.hometel.com;branch=z9hG4bK42al3 VIA: SIP/2.0/UDP raleigh.bellhead.com;branch=z9hG4bK32ad1 VIA: SIP/2.0/UDP pchome101@aol.com:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74gh5 FROM: Deby Russell <sip:deby.russell@aol.com>;tag=9hz34567sl TO: Travis Russell <sip:travis.russell@tcg.com> MAX-FORWARDS: 68 CALL-ID: 82167534@126.18.27.0 CSeq: 10001 INVITE CONTACT: Deby Russell <sip:deby@126.18.27.0> CONTENT-TYPE: application/sdp CONTENT LENGTH: 154
The UAS then sends a 200 OK response back to the UAC using the first available route. It does not necessarily use the same route used to reach the UAS.
SIP/2.0 200 OK VIA: SIP/2.0/UDP laptop107@tcg.com;branch=z9hG4bK32de5 FROM: Deby Russell <sip:deby.russell@aol.com>;tag=9hz34567sl TO: Travis Russell <sip:travis.russell@tcg.com>;tag=1df789jkf MAX-FORWARDS: 70 CALL-ID: 82167534@126.18.27.0 CSeq: 1001 INVITE CONTACT: Travis Russell <sip:travis.russell@135.18.10.10>
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This is then forwarded on to the next proxy, which will then append its address in the VIA header.
SIP/2.0 200 OK VIA: SIP/2.0/UDP losangeles.hometel.com;branch=z9hG4bK32de5 VIA: SIP/2.0/UDP laptop107@tcg.com;branch=z9hG4bK32de5 FROM: Deby Russell <sip:deby.russell@aol.com>;tag=9hz34567sl TO: Travis Russell <sip:travis.russell@tcg.com>;tag=1df789jkf MAX-FORWARDS: 69 CALL-ID: 82167534@126.18.27.0 CSeq: 1001 INVITE CONTACT: Travis Russell <sip:travis.russell@135.18.10.10>
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