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P-Visited-Network-ID Header
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The 3GPP has defined this header for 3GPP (IMS) networks. When subscribers roam outside of their home networks and register from a visited network, the registration is sent back to the home network. This is because SIP procedures within the 3GPP IMS architecture require that subscribers always register with their home networks no matter where they are located. The home network will then register the subscriber if the visited network has a roaming agreement with the subscriber s service provider. If there is no such agreement, then the subscriber s service provider has no means for collecting revenues from the service being provided to the subscriber while the subscriber is outside of the network. Likewise, the visited network lacks the ability to charge back to the home network for roaming fees. However, if the visited network has a roaming agreement with the home network, it would then identify itself using this header. The home network is then able to determine if there is a proper agreement in place, and apply the appropriate charges back to the visited network. Other networks that are transited may also elect to identify themselves using this same header; however, there is no requirement for this to take place. Other networks may elect to do nothing. In this case, the header will not be added and the home network will not be able to identify other transited networks. The contents of this header consist of a simple text string identifying the carrier. The text string is unique for each operator, enabling easy identification without subsequent lookups in other databases. The same information could probably be derived from the VIA header, but this would require the use of domain names in the VIA header. Since this is used for routing of the message through the network, this approach would require many queries to the DNS. This could overburden the DNS in busy networks. This is one reason for implementing this extension, enabling another vehicle for identifying visited networks without using the VIA headers.
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In the event encryption is used between networks, there is an option to encrypt this header as well. This would make it impossible for the header to be read by any proxies other than the SIP proxy in the home network. For example, in the IMS the registrar function is provided by the Serving Call Session Control Function (S-CSCF). The S-CSCF would be able to read the encrypted header because it knows the encryption keys. Also remember that this header is not inserted by the UAC. Only a SIP proxy can insert this header as the message traverses the network. The operator may elect to have only its edge proxies (gateways, for example) serve this purpose. For example, in the IMS architecture, the Interrogating Call Session Control Function (I-CSCF) should provide this header prior to forwarding the message outside its own network.
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The cable industry has added its own set of private extensions for use within their own packet cable networks. The cable industry has formed an alliance in the U.S., allowing all cable companies to interconnect with one another and bypass traditional telephone companies. They have formed a federation of registered and trusted companies that can then exchange data between their networks, treating one another as trusted domains. The distributed call signaling (DCS) architecture defines new procedures for the exchange of billing data, as well as support for law enforcement requests. To support these procedures, the cable community has identified the following extensions for use within packet cable networks within the U.S.
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This header is used within trusted domains to support call traces initiated either by the user or by the operator. The UA within the device adds this header within an INVITE to determine the identity of a calling party. The identity is then provided back to the user or to the operator back office functions for investigation. If the UA is outside of the trusted domain, the UA will insert this header into an INVITE message. The request-URI is then directed to the address for the trace function within the network. The username portion of the request-URI is set to call-trace. The network then provides the identity based on SIP messages (or other signaling) used to establish the call. Note that the INVITE sent by the requesting subscriber is not affiliated with the call that caused the trace to be initiated. The INVITE, then, is a request to launch a trace. The network will then respond to the trace, usually by redirecting the session to a recording where the identity can be played back for the subscriber, or to some other address for processing (such as the operator s security department, for example).
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