vb.net qr code Security in a SIP Network in Software

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Security in a SIP Network
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The message body itself is also encrypted, which could include the Session Description Protocol. Since the SDP is encrypted, any proxies that need to read the SDP portion of the message will need to be able to decrypt the message. This is another consideration when implementing encryption, since these elements will have to know the encryption keys. This may include firewall proxies as well. And don t forget the network receiving the SIP message. The network elements receiving the SIP message will also have to know the encryption keys in order to process the SIP requests. This is another reason that network agreements have to be made to ensure that the interconnecting networks can be trusted. Transited networks do not have to know the decryption keys, as they do not need to know anything more than where to route the message. The headers used for routing will contain enough information for the SIP message to reach its final destination. Transport Layer Security (TLS) is a good means of providing encryption between networks, while SIP Secure (SIPS) is designed for use within a trusted domain. TLS works at the TCP layer and is best when used between two networks where two network elements do not know each other. TLS cannot be used end to end. SIPS is used in the request-URI to indicate that TLS should be used to transport the request/response to the designated domain. Once the domain is reached, local policy determines the treatment to be used within that domain. TLS can also be used within a network, although it is best suited for interconnections with other networks. RFC 3261 specifies that TLS is to be used at proxies, redirect proxies, and registrars when interconnecting with other networks. They should also possess a site certificate for authentication. These proxies also must have the ability to validate certificates from other trusted sites, by storing the certificates from these sites (usually elements from within its own trusted domain). IPsec is best within a network between trusted elements. IPsec works within an enclave or trusted network, implemented by each of the network elements at the operating system level. Security gateways can also be used to create virtual private networks (VPNs) to make the network more robust. Another approach to encryption is tunneling a SIP message within another SIP message. The original SIP message is encrypted and then encapsulated within another SIP message for routing. The routing information from the original SIP message is used to populate the routing headers in the outside message, but nothing else is given in the outside message.
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A proxy then will only read the request-URI, VIA, RECORD-ROUTE, ROUTE, MAX-FORWARDS, and PROXY-AUTHORIZATION. These are the only headers that can be modified as the message is routed through the network. When the UAS receives a message that has been tunneled in this fashion, it compares the encrypted tunneled message with the outer message. If there are any other changes to the contents, the message is considered compromised and the original message is rejected. To allow the sender to remain anonymous, the FROM header in the encapsulated message can remain as is, but the outer message FROM header can be set to anonymous. This helps prevent the identity of the sender from being detected while the message is transiting other networks while still providing the identity once the message is received. Of course, this header should never be trusted to begin with, since it is too easily spoofed. The network should always rely and trust only the ASSERTED IDENTITY header. Tunneling messages prevents messages from being hijacked, modified, and then replayed into the network. As the original message has been encapsulated and sent within an S/MIME body, it should not have been altered. When the UAS compares the encapsulated message with the outer message, it will identify whether or not there have been any other alterations to the original message. Both the encapsulated message and the outer message are duplicated. If any of the headers in the outer message are different than the headers within the encapsulated message, the encapsulated message of course takes precedence. The headers in the outer message are discarded. Everything we have talked about so far, encryption and tunneling, applies only to the SIP messaging and not the bearer traffic itself. The bearer traffic should also be encrypted to prevent unauthorized access. Obviously the bearer traffic contains much more value to the hacker than just the SIP signaling, so it should be adequately protected as well. The exception to this is in the case of the MESSAGE method. Text messaging uses the MESSAGE method to deliver the bearer traffic, which in this case is a text message. The text message itself is carried in clear text within the message body of the SIP request. Since the text is in clear text, it becomes even more important to ensure that the message body is encrypted. S/MIME should also be used within the body text to further protect the message when it is transmitted across multiple networks. The SIP protocol does support communicating between network elements regarding the security mechanism to be used. The security mechanism is encryption, and the communications between entities are necessary to communicate the encryption schemes supported by the various nodes. There are three headers defined as extensions specifically to support the SIP security mechanism; SECURITY-CLIENT, SECURITY-SERVER, and SECURITY-VERIFY. These are used to communicate to either the UAC, UAS, or upstream proxies the method to be used. A UAC can query an upstream node to determine the encryption methods it supports prior to sending a request. It does this by sending the OPTIONS header. The receiving
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