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Interface Declaration and Use
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We begin with the discussion of interface declaration. RPC introduced a rudimentary way of defining an interface between the client and the server through the use of a specification file. The RPC specification file may be considered the first step in the development of the services interface (for example, WSDL files) in today s world. A configuration file (cube.x) for the example covered here is provided in Listing 4-3. This file is used to generate the skeleton code for both the server and the client using a tool such as rpcgen. Note that the specification is written in a specific language, such as C, and therefore requires both the server and the client to be written in the same language.
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Listing 4-3
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Listing 4.3 1 struct 2 3 }; 4 5 struct 6 7 }; 8 9 program 10 11 12 13 } = : File: cube.x cube_in { long input; /* input (argument) type */
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cube_out { long result;
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/* output (result) type
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CUBE_PROGRAM { CUBE_VERS { cube_out } = 1; 0x312;
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CUBEPROC ( cube_in) = 1; /* version number */ /* program number */
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/*func. No.*/
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Note that the specification file s name ends in .x. The specification file defines the input and output arguments and a single server function, which is exposed to the client. The following subsections provide a brief description of the contents of the sample file shown in Listing 4-3.
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Four
This description illustrates the basic steps involved in declaring an interface.
Declare the Input and Output Arguments Lines 1 3 define a structure for the input, which is of the type long. Lines 5 7 define an output structure that is also of type long. De ne the Program, the Version, and the Function In lines 9 13, we declare an RPC program called CUBE_PROG that consists of one version (CUBE_VERS), and in that version is a single function named CUBEPROC. The input argument to this function is a cube_in structure, and its return value is a cube_out structure. A number 1 is assigned to this function. We assign the version number a value of 1, and we assign the program number a hexadecimal value. This specification is used to generate four files when it is compiled with the tool rpcgen, as shown in Figure 4.5. One of those files, cube_ clnt.c, produces (when compiled by a C compiler) a client stub that is used to marshal and unmarshal the arguments on the client side. Similarly, a file called cube_svc.c produces a server stub that does the same marshalling and unmarshalling of the arguments to the function on the server side. Marshalling refers to the packaging of arguments into one or more network messages. The third file produced by compiling cube.x is a header file called cube.h. It must be included in a number of files that are used to compile both the client and the server code. The fourth file, cube_xdr.c, is also very important and is included while the client and server code is being compiled. The inclusion of this file in the client and server code ensures that byte-ordering differences on different platforms are handled automatically by the runtime library, using a standard called XDR (external data representation). Thus, it makes RPC platform independent.
cube .x
rpcgen
cube_clnt.c
cube_svc.c
cube.h
cube_xdr.c
Use of a speci cation le
Remote Procedure Call (RPC)
Next, we briefly discuss the server-side and client-side code for the current example.
RPC Server-Side Code and Compilation
Unlike the server-side code for Doors, the server-side code for RPC is very simple. All we have to do is write the implementation of the server function that s called by the client. The main() function is automatically generated by rpcgen in the file cube_svc.c. The server implementation code for this example is shown in Listing 4-4. We briefly explain the content of this listing in the following subsections.
Listing 4-4
Listing 4.4 : file server.c 1 #include "unpipc.h" 2 #include "cube.h" 3 4 cube_out * cubeproc_1_svc ( cube_in * in, struct svc_req 5 { 6 static cube_out out; 7 8 out.output = in->input * in->input * in->input; 9 return (&out); 10 }
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