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Function Name and Arguments
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In lines 4-5, you can see that the version number and '_svc' are appended to the named of the function. This allows for two overloaded function prototypes in the header file cube.h. One of these two functions is called by the client and will be discussed later. The second of these two functions is the actual server function. These two functions have different arguments. When the actual server function is called, the first argument is a pointer to the input structure, and the second argument is a pointer to a structure passed by the RPC runtime that contains information about this invocation. We ignore this information about the invocation for this simple example.
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Execution and Return Value After the input argument is obtained, the argument is cubed and the result is stored in a static structure. The address of this static structure is the return value. Note that we cannot use an automatic variable for the result because the automatic variables exist only during the execution of the function. This server program is compiled along with the three other files and runtime library files. The three files are generated by the rpcgen tool
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cube.h server.c
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cube.h cube_svc.c
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cube.h cube_xdr.c
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Compiling server side code
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with the specification file as the input (refer to Figure 4.5). This compilation of the server program is shown schematically in Figure 4.6.
Client-Side Code and Compilation
The client-side code for this example is shown in Listing 4-5. It contains the main() function that calls the remote function defined in the server-side code (Listing 4-4). The following subsections provide a brief explanation of the code.
Listing 4-5
Listing 4.5: file client.c 1 #include "unpipc.h" 2 #include "cube.h" 3 4 int main (int argc, char *argv[] ) 5 { 6 CLIENT *cl; 7 cube_input in; 8 cube_output out; 9 10 cl = Clnt_create ( argv[1], CUBE_PROGRAM, CUBE_VERSIONS, 11 12 in.input = atol (argv[2]); 13 out =cubeproc_1 (&in, cl); 14 15 printf ( "The result is : " %1d\n", out->output); 16 exit (0); 17 }
"tcp" );
Remote Procedure Call (RPC)
Include the Files In lines 1 2, two header files are included. The file cube.h is generated by rpcgen. Declare the Variables
In lines 6 8, we declare three variables, including the client handle (named cl). Client handles are like standard I/O file pointers. We also declare two other structure variables to hold the input and the output. the function clnt_create(). The first argument is the IP address of the host running our server. The second argument is the program name, and the third argument is the version number, both from the specification file. The final argument is our choice of network protocol. The protocol is normally TCP or UDP. Note that the IP address does not include the port number where the server would be listening for the incoming requests. How the client obtains this port number for the server is explained in the upcoming section RPC Process.
Obtain the Client Handle In line 10, we obtain the client handle by calling
Call the Remote Function and Print the Result In lines 12 13, we call the remote function, passing two arguments as inputs. The first argument is a pointer to an input structure, and the second argument is the client handle. The return value is a pointer to the output structure declared in the specification file cube.x. We finally print the result. The client code is compiled along with three other files generated by rpcgen and the runtime library, as shown schematically in Figure 4.7. (Note that in this figure, cc is the C compiler.)
cube.h client.c
cube.h cube clnt.c
runtime library
cube.h cube xdr.c
client (executable)
Compilation of the client code
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RPC Process
Having discussed briefly the code and its compilation, we will now outline the basic steps involved in a remote function call. Figure 4.8 summarizes the steps that take place. The steps are numbered in the order in which they occur. The very first steps are not shown in this figure. To begin, the server is started and registers a temporary port with what is called the port mapper. The server listens for the incoming call at this port on the host on which the server is running. Next, the client is started. When the client invokes the function clnt_create, it contacts the port mapper to find the temporary port of the server. Then the client establishes a TCP connection with the server at this port. These steps are not shown in the Figure 4.8 for the sake of brevity. One of the important components introduced in Figure 4.8 is the client stub. To the client, the client stub appears to be the actual procedure it calls. The purpose of the stub is to package up the arguments to the remote procedure (possibly), put them into a standard format, and then build
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