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Web Services Overview
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Protocol mismatch Related to the heterogeneity of communication protocols is the problem that arises when different applications want to communicate with each other using incompatible protocols. For example, Application A might want to communicate with Application B using HTTP. However, for Application B the suitable protocol might be IIOP. In such cases, a protocol transformation is needed so that Application A can communicate with Application B. This protocol mismatch problem is shown schematically in Figure 7.2. Diversity of data formats A problem arises when there s diversity in the data format being exchanged. Most of the time the data is dependent on the middleware being used. This diversity of data can also cause a problem if two applications that wish to interact support different data formats. This problem is shown schematically in Figure 7.3. Diversity of interface declarations A problem arises when there are large differences in the way the service interfaces are being declared and used to invoke the services. For example, the way interfaces are declared in CORBA and Java RMI are different. No common place for service lookup A problem arises when there s no common place to look up services to deal with the diversity of the services in a large enterprise.
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Another common problem is that as soon as a new version of provider software becomes available, the consumer applications must be modified to account for the change in the provider application. The solution to this problem requires that methods be found that allow the services to be extended for example, by adding more parameters without breaking the previous versions of the consumer application.
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IIOP
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This diversity and extendibility have been partly dealt with by developing standards and by further development in technology. We discuss these standards in this chapter, whereas the further development in technology is discussed in 8. Standards are discussed in detail in s 11 14 in this book. The standards are a collection of specifications, rules, and guidelines formulated and accepted by the leading market participants and are independent of implementation details. Standards establish a base for commonality and enable wide acceptance through interoperability. Examples of standards include a common communication language (XML), a common format for exchanging messages (SOAP), a common service specification format (WSDL), a common means for service lookup (UDDI), and a standard that specifically deals with interoperability issues (WS-I Basic Profile). Examples of technology development include further development of the ideas behind ESB, so as to be able to handle the different protocols for the service provider and service consumer, and the further development of registries for easy registration and discovery of services. We start our discussion of standards with the Extensible Markup Language (XML) because XML forms the basis on which most of the other standards are built. XML To begin with, XML has been adopted as a popular middleware-independent standard format for the exchange of data and documents. XML is basically the lowest common denominator upon which the IT industry
Web Services Overview
can agree. Unlike CORBA, IDL, and Java interfaces, XML is not bound to any particular technology or middleware standard and is often used today as an ad-hoc format for processing data across different, largely incompatible middleware platforms. XML is free and comes with a large number of tools on many different platforms, including different opensource parsing APIs such as SAX, StAX, and DOM. These tools enable the processing and management of XML documents. Another advantage of XML is that it retains the data s structure in transit. In addition, XML is very flexible, and this flexibility positions XML as the most suitable standard for solving middleware and application heterogeneity problems. XML also solves the data format problem mentioned previously. XML is probably the most important of the standards on which Web Services are built. XML documents are often used as a means for passing information between the service provider and service consumer. XML also forms the basis for WSDL (Web Services Description Language), which is used to declare the interface that a Web Service exposes to the consumer of the service. Additionally, XML underlies the SOAP protocol for accessing a Web Service. Lastly, UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery, and Integration), which is used to publish and discover a Web Service, is also based on XML. The dependence of the data exchange and various other standards on XML is shown schematically in Figure 7.4. Similar to HTML, XML uses tags. However, unlike HTML, where tags are used to indicate how the data should be presented or displayed, in XML tags are used to describe what the data is. Another difference from HTML is that tags are not fixed but can be invented whenever there is a need for a new one. The general structure of an XML document is shown in Figure 7.5. This figure shows that a basic XML document consists of a top element. This top element may consist of data (the payload), an attribute, and any number of other elements in a recursive manner. A sample portion of a simple XML document is shown in Listing 7-1. This document
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