Converged Networks Independent of ILEC Infrastructure: We Have the Technology in Software

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Converged Networks Independent of ILEC Infrastructure: We Have the Technology
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It is possible that new technologies will enable a rapid and inexpensive rollout of residential broadband service. As we may recall from 2, The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), and 3, Softswitch Architecture or It s the Architecture, Stupid! a telephone network is three main elements: access, switching, and transport. The Memorandum of Final Judgement (MFJ) opened transport to competition in 1984. The bandwidth
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Softswitch and Broadband
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glut of recent years has made transport much more accessible, both in terms of engineering and cost. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 was supposed to have opened the elements of switching and access to competition. At the time of this writing, only about eight percent of U.S. residential customers have a choice in local service providers. The failure of American regulatory agencies to enforce that law has left both elements largely closed to competition. However, as described in previous chapters, softswitch provides a technological bypass of the ILEC-owned Class 5 switch. This leaves access as the final element that must be opened to competition. Access, also known as the last mile, has been a sticky issue for wouldbe competitors to the ILECs. Failure to bypass this last mile is one of many reasons why the Competitive Local Exchange Carrier (CLEC) boom went bust in the late 1990s. The cost of stringing copper wires to each and every business and residence makes it economically impossible to compete with ILECs. Cable TV companies are presently the most prevalent alternative providers of wire-line service to the home. Cellular service providers only recently presented competition to wire-line services provided by an ILEC. Most cellular services use Class 4 and Class 5 switches in their networks.
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Access Alternatives to the PSTN and Cable TV
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If softswitch provides a technological bypass of the RBOC Central Office, what good is that if a service provider must still contract with the RBOC for access to subscriber Once access independent of the RBOC is achieved and voice is switched by a softswitch and transported via an IP backbone, incumbent telephone companies are then bypassed almost entirely. The following pages speculate on what alternative forms of access are available to a competitive service provider.
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The broadband wireless Internet service is being built around a technology known as wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi), based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEEs) 802.11b standard.This is an increasingly popular networking standard that s used in wireless local area networks (LANs) in homes
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Softswitch and Broadband
Figure 13-1 Components of a network alternative to the PSTN
13
Access (WiFi)
Switching (softswitch)
Transport (IP backbone)
Access (WiFi)
Switching (softswitch)
Figure 13-2 A more detailed example of an alternative to the PSTN
Switching (softswitch) WiFi (wireless broadband) IP phone Transport (IP backbone)
WiFi (wireless broadband) IP phone Switching (softswitch)
and offices at speeds up to 11 Mbps, far faster than the peak 144 Kbps rate for third-generation (3G) mobile-phone networks (see Figures 13-1 and 13-2).1
Fiberless Optics
Another means of deploying broadband service rapidly without cables and messy legal fights over rights of way is fiberless optics. Just as fiber
Stone, Amey. Wi-Fi: It s Fast, It s Here and It Works. Business Week, April 1, 2002, www. businessweek.com/technology/content/apr2002/tc2002041_1823.htm.
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Softswitch and Broadband
Softswitch and Broadband
optics involves a laser beam shot over a fiber optic cable, fiberless optics, as the name would imply, shoots a laser beam through the air from a transmitter to the subscriber s receiver. To date, fiberless optics is a popular alternative to fiber optic cable in dense urban business settings, but it has yet to be deployed in residential applications in any significant numbers.
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