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At the physical layer, carriers use microwave or fiber optic cable to transport ATM packets containing voice and data from switch to switch. IXC backbone carrier facilities primarily use microwave and fiber transmission lines. Microwave systems offer a medium capacity of up to several hundred Mbps communications with a range of 20 to 30 miles between towers. Fiber optic communication systems offer a data transmission capacity of over one million Mbps (one million in a million bits per second). Microwave transmission systems transfer signal energy through an unobstructed medium (no blocking buildings or hills) between two or more points. In 1951, microwave radio transmission systems became the backbone of the telecommunications infrastructure. Microwave systems require a transducer to convert signal energy of one form into electromagnetic energy for transmission. The transducer must also focus the energy (using an antenna dish) so it may launch the energy in the desired direction. Some
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of the electromagnetic energy that is transmitted by microwave systems is absorbed by the water particles in the air. Although the extensive deployment of fiber optic cable has removed some of the need for microwave radio systems, microwave radio is still used in places that are hard to reach or are not cost effectively served by fiber cable, such as in developing countries. Fiber optic transmission is the transfer of information (usually in digital form) through the use of light pulses. Fiber optic transmission can be performed through glass fiber or through air. Fiber optic transmission lines are capable of extending up to 1,200 kilometers without amplifiers. Each fiber optic strand can carry up to 10 Gbps of optical channels and a fiber can have many optical channels (called DWDM). Each fiber cable can have many strands of fiber. Fiber cable is relatively light and low cost, and it can be easily installed in a variety of ways. It does not experience distortion from electrical interference and this enables it to be installed on high-voltage power lines or in other places that have high levels of electromagnetic interference. Optical transmission systems use strands of glass or plastic fiber to transfer optical energy between points. For most optical transmission systems, the transmitting end-node uses a light amplification through stimulated emission of radiation (laser) device to convert digital information into pulsed light signals (amplitude modulation). The light signals travel down the fiber strand by bouncing (reflecting) off the sides of the fiber (called the cladding) until they reach the end of the fiber. The end of the fiber is connected to a photodetector that converts these light pulses back into their electrical signal form. Synchronous optical transmission systems use a specific frame structure and the data transmission through the transmission line is synchronized to a precise clock. This eliminates the signaling overhead requirement for framing or timing alignment messages. The basic frame size used in optical transmission systems is 125 usec frames. Optical transmission systems are characterized by their carrier level (OCX) where the basic carrier level 1 is 51.84 Mbps. Lower-level OC structures are combined to produce higher-speed communication lines. Different structures of OC are used in the world. The North American optical transmission standard is called Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) and the European (world standard) is Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH). Signals are applied to and are extracted from optical transmission systems using an optical add/drop multiplexer (OADM). The OADM is a network element that provides access to all or some subset synchronous transport signal (STS) line signals contained within an optical carrier level N (OC-N). The process used to direct a data signal or packet to a pay-
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load of an optical signal is called mapping. The mapping table is contained in the OADM. A copy of the OADM mapping is kept at other locations in the event of equipment failure. This allows the OADM to be quickly reprogrammed. SDH is an international digital transmission format used in optical (fiber) standardized networks that is similar (but not identical) to SONET. SDH uses standardized synchronous transmissions according to ITU standards G.707, G.708, and G.709. These standards define data transfer rates, defined optical interfaces, and signal structure formats. Some of the key differences between SONET and SDH include differences in overhead (control) bits and minimum transfer rates. The first level available in the SONET system is OC1 and is 51.84 Mbps. The first level in the SDH system starts at STM-1 and has a data transmission rate of 155.52 Mbps. SONET also multiplexes synchronous transport signal level 1 (STS-1) to form multiple levels of STS. The SDH system divides the channels into multiple DS0s (64 Kbps channels). This is why the overhead signaling structures are different. Table 2-6 shows the optical standards for both SONET and SDH. This table shows that the first common optical level between SONET and SDH
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