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Printing Quick Response Code in Software Figure 3-4 IP phones on an IP network

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The IP handset has its own IP address, which is recognized wherever it is connected on an IP network (see Figure 3-4). In an enterprise setting, a worker can disconnect his or her IP phone and move to another cubicle, building, or state, and the phone will function with no reprogramming necessary. In a legacy enterprise setting with a circuit-switched private branch exchange (PBX), tools for managing moves, adds, or changes tend to be difficult to use and, consequently, administrators learn only the basic management skills. This makes it very expensive to administer the switch. According to some estimates, it can cost as much as $300 to $500 per a PBX move, add, or change. For a Centrex line, it can take weeks for a change to be implemented by the telephone company.3 IP phones are available in two flavors (or VoIP protocols, to be covered in following chapters), H.323 and the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), and they require no gateway. Physically, the IP phone connects to the network via an Ethernet connection (RJ-45). In a business environment, an Ethernet hub serves to concentrate VoIP phone lines, although in a legacy network there would be an expensive PBX. The advantage to a VoIP service provider is that it need not maintain a Class 4 or 5 switch or VoIP gateway.
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Figure 3-4 IP phones on an IP network
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Next-Gen VoIP Services and Applications Using SIP and Java. A white paper from Applied Technologies Group, available at www.pingtel.com/docs/collateral_techguide_final.pdf.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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In a legacy voice network, service providers must purchase and maintain large Class 4 and 5 switches. They must also measure their investment in a cost per DS0 (single phone line) on a switch that is further extrapolated into a cost per subscriber for the switch. In a VoIP network, it is generally assumed that the subscriber will purchase his or her own customer premise equipment (CPE). Hence, in such a next-generation network, the cost per DS0 for the service provider is $0. SIP and Java programs also enable a whole new generation of applications that are impossible with circuit-switched telephony architectures. These applications can generally be divided into three categories: personal productivity applications, occupation-specific and industry-specific applications, and web-telephony integration (WTI) applications. Most IP phones have liquid crystal display (LCD) screens with GUIs that enable expanded functions over a 12-button analog handset. With a conventional handset, the user must memorize long reams of number codes to perform functions such as conferencing, voice mail retrieval, call forwarding, and so on. For many users, this presents a psychological barrier that limits them to using only a handful of the features available on a PBX, thus preventing them from being as efficient in their communications as they could be. An IP phone with a GUI overcomes a number of these shortcomings by presenting the user with graphic choices to access their features. A disadvantage to the IP phone is that, at the time of this writing, the IP phones on the market are very expensive relative to a conventional handset. IP phones from Cisco, Nortel, or PingTel cost at least $500, as opposed to a conventional PBX-connected handset at about $150 per handset. That high cost makes this technology unattractive to the residential market. However, an IP handset that was competitive in price to feature-rich analog or digital handsets would probably be very popular and would further the growth of IP telephony. Price competition will drive the price of IP phones to below $100 by late 2003. In summary, the chief advantage of IP phones to a service provider is that they do not require the service provider to invest in a switch or gateway. In theory, the subscriber has covered that investment by buying the IP phone. Furthermore, service providers enjoy high margins on offering features, especially features not possible via circuit-switched telephones and networks. GUI interfaces on IP phones make these services easier to use, which can result in a greater marketability of those services for the service provider. In short, the voice network of the not-so-distant future will consist of IP phones that connect to IP networks where the intelligence for that service is provided by a softswitch located anywhere on the network.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
Softswitch Architecture or It s the Architecture, Stupid!
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