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Media Gateways (a VoIP gateway switch)
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The most successful commercial form of access has been the use of a VoIP gateway. The gateway provides a connection between an endpoint on a data network and the PSTN or switched-circuit network. The gateway translates between transmission formats and the communication procedures that are used on each side. Gateways can be provided as stand-alone devices or be integrated into other systems. In this form of access, an existing telephone handset interfaces a gateway either via a direct connection, a PBX, or a Class 5 switch. The gateway packetizes the voice and routes it over the IP network. Table 3-1 details the range of gateways and the scale of access they provide. A media gateway can serve as both an access and limited-switching device. The media gateway resides on the edge of a network and simply interfaces between Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) and IP networks. It is here that analog or digital signals from a handset (PBX or Class 4 or 5 switch) are digitized (if analog), packetized, and compressed for transmission over an IP network. In the inverse, incoming calls are translated and decompressed from an IP network for reception on digital or analog telephone devices.4 The media gateway interfaces directly with a TDM switch (PBX or Class 4 or 5). The design of a gateway includes three key elements: an interface for the TDM side of the network (described in terms of DS0s or T1s), an interface for the packet side of the network (usually an Ethernet connection), and the necessary signal processing between these two sides. Signal pro-
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Table 3-1 Gateways and their markets based on scalability
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Scale 2 to 8 ports (DS0s) linking a telephone handset via an RJ-11 connector From two ports to multiple T1/E1s connecting to a PBX or directly to a handset High density, multiple T1/E1 line side, an OC-3, and a trunk side with 3,000-plus DS0s in a seven-foot rack
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International Softswitch Consortium. Enhanced Service Framework. Applications Working Group, www.Softswitch.org, 2001.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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Softswitch Architecture or It s the Architecture, Stupid!
Softswitch Architecture or "It's the Architecture, Stupid!"
cessing is done with digital signal processors (DSP) on circuitboards designed to support voice. Signal processing functions include echo cancellation, coding/decoding of the analog signal with algorithms discussed in 2, The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), such as G.711 or G.723.1, adapting the digitally encoded information into a series of IP datagrams, and transmitting those datagrams via a network to its ultimate destination. On softswitch architecture, a media gateway can also be a part of the switching equation depending on the amount of intelligence contained in the gateway. The trend is toward less intelligence in the media gateway and more intelligence in the softswitch. In the early days of the VoIP industry, the gateway had to contain a good deal of intelligence to make calls possible. However, the evolution of gatekeeper technology into carrier-grade softswitch has drawn the intelligence out of the gateway and on to the softswitch. Perhaps the most important issue for media gateways is their scalability. The density (the number of DS0s or ports in one chassis) determines its classification. Depending on its density, a media gateway falls into one of the three following classifications: residential or small office home office (SOHO), enterprise, or carrier grade. Residential or SOHO Gateways Figure 3-5 shows a residential grade of a VoIP gateway.
Figure 3-5 SOHO gateways in a VOIP network
Application Server
Data
Softswitch
IP Network
2 port gateway
4 port gateway
Telephone
Telephone
Telephone
Telephone
Telephone
Telephone
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
Softswitch Architecture or It s the Architecture, Stupid!
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