vb.net barcode generator Figure 3-8 IP PBX, also known as soft PBX in Software

Generator QR Code JIS X 0510 in Software Figure 3-8 IP PBX, also known as soft PBX

Figure 3-8 IP PBX, also known as soft PBX
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IP Centrex Just as the Centrex model followed the PBX in circuit switching, it does the same in packet switching. Shortly after IP PBXs began to catch on in the market, the Regional Bell Operating Companies (RBOCs) began to realize a threat to their circuit-switched Centrex services from VoIP applications. Centrex accounted for about 15 percent of all business lines, and many subscribers were locked into five-year contracts with the RBOCs. As these contracts expired in the late 1990s, many customers were actively evaluating less expensive alternatives to Centrex. If large companies could route their interoffice voice traffic over a corporate wide area network (WAN) using an IP PBX, what would be the demand for their circuit-switched Centrex services With this threat in mind, IP Centrex services arrived on the market. Centrex is a set of specialized business solutions (primarily, but not exclusively, for voice service) where the equipment providing the call control and service logic functions is owned and operated by the service provider and hence is located on the service provider s premises. Since Centrex frees the customer from the costs and responsibilities of major equipment ownership, Centrex can be thought of as an outsourcing solution. In traditional Centrex service (analog Centrex and ISDN Centrex), call control and service logic reside in a Class 5 switch located in the central office. The Class 5 switch is also responsible for transporting and switching the electrical signals that carry the caller s speech or other information (such as faxes). IP Centrex refers to IP telephony solutions where Centrex service is offered to a customer who transmits his voice calls to the network as packetized streams across an IP network. One benefit is increased utilization of access capacity. In IP Centrex, a single broadband access facility is used to carry the packetized voice streams for many simultaneous calls. In analog Centrex, one pair of copper wires is needed to serve each analog telephone station, regardless of whether the phone has an active call. Once the phone is not engaged in a call, the bandwidth capacity of those wires is unused. An ISDN basic rate interface (BRI) can support two simultaneous calls (that is, 128 Kbps), but similar to analog lines, an idle BRI s bandwidth capacity cannot be used to increase the corporate LAN s interconnection speed. IP Centrex Using Class 5 Switch Architecture In this platform, existing Class 5 switches support IP Centrex service in addition to traditional Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) and ISDN lines. This is accomplished through the use of a media gateway (as described earlier in this chapter) on the customer premises (CPE) and a GR-303 gateway colocated with the Class 5 switch (see Figure 3-9). The media gateway can be of any
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Softswitch Architecture or It s the Architecture, Stupid!
Softswitch Architecture or "It's the Architecture, Stupid!"
Figure 3-9 IP Centrex using a Class 5 switch and GR-303 interface
VOIP Gateway
IP Network GR303 Gateway Class 5 Switch
Telephone
Telephone
size from an IP phone to a carrier-grade media gateway. The media gateway connects to the switch as if it were a digital loop carrier system. (Digital loop carriers use protocols such as GR-303 to deliver POTS and ISDN signaling information to switches for longer-than-average loops.) The GR303 gateway translates any signaling information it receives from the customer s media gateway and depacketizes the voice stream for delivery to the switch. Similarly, it translates signaling messages from the switch into the IP telephony protocol (H.323, SIP, or MGCP) and packetizes the voice stream for transmission to the customer s media gateway. The customer s media gateway performs comparable functions for the standard telephone sets that it supports. As a result, the GR-303 gateway, the customer s media gateway, and the IP network connecting them appear to the Class 5 switch as an ordinary digital loop carrier (DLC) system, and the telephone sets connected to the customer gateway appear to the switch as ordinary phone lines. Because the IP Centrex solution is treated as a DLC system by the Class 5 switch, the switch is able to deliver the same features to IP Centrex users that it delivers to analog and ISDN Centrex users. Consequently, an extensive set of features is immediately available to IP Centrex users without needing to upgrade the Class 5 switch. IP Centrex Using Softswitch Architecture In a different approach to IP Centrex, the Class 5 switch is replaced by a softswitch (see Figure 3-10). A softswitch is a telephony application running on a large, highavailability server on the network. Like the Class 5 switch, the softswitch provides call control and service logic. Unlike the Class 5 switch, the softswitch is not involved in the transport or switching of the packetized voice stream. The softswitch and the IP Centrex CPE (customer media
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Softswitch Architecture or It s the Architecture, Stupid!
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