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Figure 3-10 IP Centrex with softswitch
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gateways and IP phones) signal one another over a packet network using an IP telephony protocol, such as H.323 or SIP. After it receives call setup information, the softswitch determines where the called party resides. If the called party is a member of the Centrex group, then the softswitch instructs the originating media gateway (or IP phone) and the terminating media gateway (or IP phone) to route the packetized voice streams directly to one another. Consequently, the voice stream never leaves the corporate LAN/WAN. If the called party is served by the PSTN, then the softswitch instructs the originating media gateway (or IP phone) to route the packetized voice stream to a trunking gateway. The trunking gateway has traditional interoffice facilities to Class 4 or Class 5 switches in the PSTN. It packetizes/depacketizes the voice stream so that it can be transmitted over these circuit-switched facilities. The trunking gateway works in conjunction with a signaling gateway, which is used to exchange SS7 messages with the PSTN. Both the trunking and signaling gateways receive their instructions from the softswitch.6
Class 4 Replacement Softswitch
The next step in scale for the VoIP industry and tangentially the softswitch industry was Class 4 replacement. The origins of Class 4 replacement
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Softswitch Architecture or It s the Architecture, Stupid!
Softswitch Architecture or "It's the Architecture, Stupid!"
softswitch solutions lay in the long-distance bypass industry. Longdistance bypass operators used VoIP gateways for international transport. This technology enabled them to be competitive relative to the big three long-distance companies. Part of that success was due to the fact that they were able to avoid paying into international settlements (described later in this book). Initially, these service providers used enterprise-grade media gateways that interfaced with TDM switches in the PSTN. Technical challenges for these operators arose as their business flourished and demand grew. First, the media gateways were not dense enough for the levels of traffic they were handling. Second, the gateways that controlled these gateways were also limited in their capability to handle ever-increasing levels of traffic over these networks. Thirdly, international traffic called for interfacing different national variants of SS7 signaling (each nation has its own variant). In short, market demand dictated that a more scalable and intelligent solution be offered in the long-distance bypass industry. That solution came in the form of what is known as a Class 4 replacement softswitch solution, comprised of more densely populated gateways managed with greater intelligence than an MGC. The first applications involved installing a dense gateway on the trunk side of a Class 4 switch, such as a Nortel DMS-250. As in the PBX scenario, the media gateway packetized the voice stream coming out of the Class 4 switch and routed it over an IP network, saving the service provider money on long-distance transport. The next step in the evolution of Class 4 replacement softswitch was the removal of the circuit-switched Class 4 switch from that architecture. That is, the Class 5 switch connected directly to a media gateway that routed the call over an IP network. The call control, signaling, and features were controlled by a softswitch, and the Class 4 switch was replaced in its entirety. For the purposes of this book, it is assumed that the arena of competition is similar to a scenario where Class 4 switches (DSM-250s from Nortel) are connected to an IP backbone and long-distance traffic is transported via that IP backbone.7 At this service provider, softswitch, as a Class 4 replacement switch, competes directly with the Class 4 switch. Figures 3-11 and 3-12 illustrate this evolution in architecture.
IP-Centrex.org web site (www.ip-centrex.org). Interview with John Hill, Network Sales Engineer, Williams Communication, October 31, 2001.
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Softswitch Architecture or It s the Architecture, Stupid!
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