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How Does VoIP Work
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Softswitch is increasingly considered to be almost synonymous with VoIP. However, it also works with Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks. The first process in an IP voice system is the digitization of the speaker s voice. The next step (and the first step when the user is on a handset connected to a gateway using a digital PSTN connection) is typically the suppression of unwanted signals and compression of the voice signal. This has two stages. First, the system examines the recently digitized information to determine if it contains voice signal or only ambient noise and discards any packets that do not contain speech. Secondly, complex algorithms are employed to reduce the amount of information that must be sent to the other party. Sophisticated codecs enable noise suppression and the compression of voice streams. Compression algorithms include G.723, G.728, and G.729. Following compression, voice must be packetized and VoIP protocols added. Some storage of data occurs during the process of collecting voice data, since the transmitter must wait for a certain amount of voice data to be collected before it is combined to form a packet and transmitted via the network. Protocols are added to the packet to facilitate its transmission across the network. For example, each packet will need to contain the address of its destination, a sequencing number in case the packets do not arrive in the proper order, and additional data for error checking. Because IP is a protocol designed to interconnect networks of varying kinds, substantially more processing is required than in smaller networks. The network addressing system can often be very complex, requiring a process of encapsulating one packet inside another and, and as data moves along, repackaging, readdressing, and reassembling the data.
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TeleGeography 2002 Global Traffic Statistics and Commentary, TeleGeography, 2001, www.TeleGeography.com.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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When each packet arrives at the destination computer, its sequencing is checked to place the packets in the proper order. A decompression algorithm is used to restore the data to its original form, and clock synchronization and delay-handling techniques are used to ensure proper spacing. Because data packets are transported via the network by a variety of routes, they do not arrive at their destination in order. To correct this, incoming packets are stored for a time in a jitter buffer to wait for late-arriving packets. The length of time in which data are held in the jitter buffer varies depending on the characteristics of the network. In IP networks, a percentage of the packets can be lost or delayed, especially in periods of congestion. Also, some packets are discarded due to errors that occurred during transmission. Lost, delayed, and damaged packets result in a substantial deterioration of voice quality. In conventional error-correction techniques used in other protocols, incoming blocks of data containing errors are discarded, and the receiving computer requests the retransmission of the packet; thus, the message that is finally delivered to the user is exactly the same as the message that originated. As VoIP systems are time-sensitive and cannot wait for retransmission, more sophisticated error detection and correction systems are used to create sound to fill in the gaps. This process stores a portion of the incoming speaker s voice and then, using a complex algorithm to approximate the contents of the missing packets, new sound information is created to enhance the communication. Thus, the sound heard by the receiver is not exactly the sound transmitted, but rather portions of it have been created by the system to enhance the delivered sound.2 The previous description details the movement of voice over the IP medium. The rest of the chapter will describe the building blocks of a VoIP network: its protocols.
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