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data and can be either physical (such as an interface terminating a digital trunk or analog line) or virtual (such as a designated audio source). An example of a virtual endpoint is an audio source in an audio-content server. The creation of physical endpoints requires hardware installation, while the creation of virtual endpoints can be done by software. Endpoint identifiers have two components, the domain name of the gateway that is managing the endpoint, and a local name within that gateway. Examples of physical endpoints include interfaces on gateways that terminate a trunk connected to a PSTN switch (Class 5 or Class 4) or an analog Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) connection to a phone, key system, PBX, and so on. MGCP sends commands from the call agent to a media gateway. MGCP defines both endpoints and connections. Connections can be either point to point or multipoint in nature. Further, connections are grouped into calls, where one or more connections can belong to one call. A point-to-point connection is an association between two endpoints with the purpose of transmitting data between these endpoints. Once this association is established for both endpoints, a data transfer between these endpoints can take place. A multipoint connection is established by connecting the endpoint to a multipoint session. For point-to-point connections, the endpoints of a connection could be in separate gateways or in the same gateway. The connections and calls are established by the actions of one or more call agents. The information communicated between call agents and endpoints is either events or signals. An example of an event would be a telephone going off hook, while a signal may be the application of a dial tone to an endpoint. These events and signals are grouped into what are called packages, which are supported by a particular type of endpoint. One package may support events and signals for an analog line, while another package may support a group of events and signals for video lines. As long as media gateways are interfacing with analog or PSTN connections to IP networks, MGCP will be the controlling protocol. MGCP will continue to be an integral element in any softswitch architecture.6 Figure 4-2 details the function of MGCP in softswitch architecture and Table 4-1 outlines the signaling protocols and their softswitch components.
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Internet Engineering Task Force. Request For Comments (RFC) 2705, Media Gateway Control Protocol, October 1999.
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Figure 4-2 The relationship between signaling protocols and softswitch architecture components
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4
Signaling Gateway SGCP
Softswitch
MGCP
Media Gateway
Table 4-1 Signaling protocols and associated softswitch components
Network elements Media gateway softswitch Media gateway media gateway Media gateway softswitch Softswitch SS7 network Softswitch or application server
Signaling protocol elements H.323 BICC MGCP ISUP, TCAP SIP
Source: Internet Telephony
BICC Bearer Independent Call Control (BICC) is a newer protocol used for media-gateway-to-media-gateway communications. It provides a means of supporting narrowband ISDN services across a broadband backbone network without impacting the interfaces to the existing N-ISDN network and end-to-end services. The BICC call control signaling protocol is based on N-ISUP signaling.7
Ratta, Greg. Bearer Independent Call Control and its application of H.248 in public networks. ITU-T IP/MediaComm Workshop 2004. www.itu.int/itudoc/itu-t/com13/ipexpert/ ipmedia/71396.html. April 26, 2001, pg. 3.
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SS7-Related Protocols In order for IP telephony networks to interoperate with the PSTN, they must interface with SS7. Softswitch solutions must include ISDN User Part (ISUP) and Transaction Capabilities Application Part (TCAP). ISUP, defined by ITU-T Q.761 and Q.764, is the call control part of the SS7b protocol. ISUP is an SS7 protocol for signaling the parameters and procedures to set up and tear down circuit-switched voice calls between a softswitch/signaling gateway and an STP. ISUP determines the procedures for call setup and teardown on the SS7 network.8 TCAP is a peer protocol to ISUP in the SS7 protocol hierarchy for end-toend signaling not associated with call setup or specific trunks in the PSTN network. Some of its main uses are toll-free 800 number translations for routing across the network and local number portability (LNP). It also provides the interface between databases and SCPs.9 TCAP provides services to any number of application parts. Common application parts include the Intelligent Network Application Part (INAP) and the Mobile Application Part (MAP).10 This book will address the interworkings of SS7 and VoIP networks in greater detail in a following chapter.
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