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VoIP is routed over an IP network via routers. In order to deliver the best QoS, voice packets must be given priority over data packets. That means communicating to routers which packets have what priority. Router operations involve several processes. First, the router creates a routing table to gather information from other routers about the optimum path for each packet. This table may be static in that it is constructed by the router according to the current topology and conditions. Dynamic routing is considered a better technique as it adapts to changing network conditions. The router uses a metric of the shortest distance between two endpoints to help determine the optimum path. The router determines the least cost (most efficient) path from the origin to the destination. Two algorithms are used to determine the least cost route. They are distance vector and link state. Protocols that make use of these algorithms are called Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs). The Routing Information Protocol
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Newton, Harry. Newton s Telecom Dictionary, 16th edition. New York: CMP Books. pg. 486. Douskalis, pg. 9. Collins, Michael. Carrier Grade Voice Over IP. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001. pg. 311.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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(RIP) is an IGP based on the distance vector algorithm and the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol is an IGP based on the link state algorithm. Where one network needs to communicate with another, it uses an Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP). One example of an EGP is the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). Routing Information Protocol (RIP) RIP is a distance vector protocol that uses a hop count (the number of routers it passes through on its route to its destination) as its metric. RIP is widely used for routing traffic on the Internet and is an IGP, which means that it performs routing within a single autonomous system. EGPs, such as BGP, perform routing between different autonomous systems. RIP itself evolved as an Internet routing protocol, and other protocol suites use modified versions of RIP. Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Protocol OSPF is a routing protocol developed for IP networks by the IGP Working Group of the IETF. The Working Group was formed in 1988 to design an IGP based on the Shortest Path First (SPF) algorithm for use on the Internet. Similar to the Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP), OSPF was created because in the mid-1980s RIP was increasingly incapable of serving large, heterogeneous internetworks. OSPF has two primary characteristics. The first is that the protocol is open, which means that its specification is in the public domain. The OSPF specification is published as the IETF s RFC 1247. The second principal characteristic is that OSPF is based on the SPF algorithm, which sometimes is referred to as the Dijkstra algorithm, named for the person credited with its creation. OSPF is a link-state routing protocol that calls for the sending of linkstate advertisements (LSAs) to all other routers within the same hierarchical area. Information on attached interfaces, the metrics used, and other variables are included in OSPF LSAs. As OSPF routers accumulate linkstate information, they use the SPF algorithm to calculate the shortest path to each node. SPF Algorithm The SPF routing algorithm is the basis for OSPF operations. When an SPF router is powered up, it initializes its routing-protocol data structures and then waits for indications from lower-layer protocols that its interfaces are functional. After a router is assured that its interfaces are functioning, it uses the OSPF Hello protocol to acquire neighbors, which are routers with interfaces to a common network. The router sends hello packets to its neighbors and receives their hello packets. In addition
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