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RSVP is not a routing protocol; instead, it works in conjunction with routing protocols and installs the equivalent of dynamic access lists along the routes that routing protocols calculate. RSVP occupies the place of a transport protocol in the OSI Model seven-layer protocol stack. The IETF is now working toward standardization through an RSVP working group. RSVP operational topics discussed in this chapter include data flows, QoS, session startup, reservation style, and soft state implementation. In RSVP, a data flow is a sequence of messages that have the same source, destination (one or more), and QoS. QoS requirements are communicated through a network via a flow specification, which is a data structure used by internetwork hosts to request special services from the internetwork. A flow specification often guarantees how the internetwork will handle some of its host traffic. RSVP supports three traffic types: best-effort, rate-sensitive, and delaysensitive. The type of data-flow service used to support these traffic types depends on the QoS implemented. The following paragraphs address these traffic types and associated services. For information regarding QoS, refer to the appropriate section later in this chapter. Best-effort traffic is traditional IP traffic. Applications include file transfers, such as mail transmissions, disk mounts, interactive logins, and transaction traffic. The service supporting best-effort traffic is called best-effort service. Rate-sensitive traffic is willing to give up timeliness for guaranteed rate. Rate-sensitive traffic, for example, might request 100 Kbps of bandwidth. If it actually sends 200 Kbps for an extended period, a router can delay traffic. Rate-sensitive traffic is not intended to run over a circuitswitched network; however, it usually is associated with an application that has been ported from a circuit-switched network (such as ISDN) and is running on a datagram network (IP). An example of such an application is H.323 videoconferencing, which is designed to run on ISDN (H.320) or ATM (H.310) but is found on the Internet. H.323 encoding is a constant rate or nearly constant rate, and it requires a constant transport rate. The RSVP service supporting ratesensitive traffic is called guaranteed bit-rate service. Delay-sensitive traffic is traffic that requires the timeliness of delivery and varies its rate accordingly. MPEG-II video, for example, averages about 3 to 7 Mbps depending on the amount of change in the picture. As an example, 3 Mbps might be a picture of a painted wall, although 7 Mbps would be required for a picture of waves on the ocean. MPEG-II video sources send key and delta frames. Typically, 1 or 2 key frames per second describe the whole picture, and 13 or 28 frames describe the change from the key frame. Delta frames are usually substantially smaller than key frames. As a result, rates vary quite a
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bit from frame to frame. A single frame, however, requires delivery within a frame time or the codec is unable to do its job. A specific priority must be negotiated for delta-frame traffic. RSVP services supporting delay-sensitive traffic are referred to as controlled-delay service (nonreal time service) and predictive service (real-time service). In the context of RSVP, QoS is an attribute specified in flow specifications that is used to determine the way in which data interchanges are handled by participating entities (routers, receivers, and senders). RSVP is used to specify the QoS by both hosts and routers. Hosts use RSVP to request a QoS level from the network on behalf of an application data stream. Routers use RSVP to deliver QoS requests to other routers along the path(s) of the data stream. In doing so, RSVP maintains the router and host state to provide the requested service.13
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