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Class 4 and 5 Switching
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Class 4 and 5 switches are the brains of the PSTN. Figure 2-3 illustrates the flow of a call from a handset to a Class 5 switch, which in turn hands the call off to a Class 4 switch for routing over a long-distance network. That call may be routed through other Class 4 switches before terminating at the Class 5 switch at the destination end of the call before being passed
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Harte, Lawrence. Telecom Made Simple. Fuquay-Varina, NC: APDG Publishing, 2002.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)
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The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)
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Figure 2-3 Relationship of Class 4 and 5 switching
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Class 5 Switch Chicago
on to the terminating handset. Class 5 switches handle local calling and Class 4 switches handle long-distance calls. The performance metrics for the Class 4 and 5 have been reliability, scalability, quality of service (QoS), signaling, and features. Class 4 and 5 Architecture One reason for the reputation of Class 4 and 5 switches being reliable is that they have been tested by time in the legacy market. Incremental improvements to the 4ESS included new interfaces, hardware, software, and databases to improve Operations, Administration, Maintenance, and Provisioning (OAM&P). The inclusion of the 1A processor improved memory in the 4 and 5ESS mainframe, allowing for translation databases. Ultimately, those databases were interfaced with the Centralized Automatic Reporting on Trunks (CAROT). Later, integrated circuit chips replaced the magnetic core stores and improved memory and boosted the Busy Hour Call Attempt (BHCA) capacity to 700,000 BHCAs.2 Class 4 and 5 Components The architecture of the Class 4 and 5 switch is the product of 25-plus years of design evolution. For the purposes of this discussion, the Nortel DMS-250, one of the most prevalent products in the North American Class 4 market, is used as a real-world example. The other
Chapuis, Robert, and Amos Joel. In the United States, AT&T s Digital Switch Entry No. 4 ESS, First Generation Time Division Digital Switch. Electronics, Computers, and Telephone Systems. New York: North Holland Publishing, 1990, p. 337 338.
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The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)
2
leading product in this market is the 4ESS from Lucent Technologies. For local offices or Class 5, the most prevalent product is the 5ESS from Lucent. DMS-250 hardware, for example, is redundant for reliability and decreased downtime during upgrades. It has a reliability rating of 99.999 percent (the five 9s), which meets the industry metric for reliability. The modular design of the hardware enables the system to scale from 480 to over 100,000 DS0s (individual phone lines). The density, or number of phone lines the switch can handle, is one metric of scalability. The DMS-250 is rated at 800,000 BHCAs. Tracking BHCAs on a switch is a measure of call-processing capability and is another metric for scalability. Key hardware components of the DMS-250 system include the DMS core, switch matrix, and trunk interface. The DMS core is the central processing unit (CPU) and memory of the system, handling high-level call processing, system control functions, system maintenance, and the installation of new switch software. The DMS-250 switching matrix switches calls to their destinations. Its nonblocking architecture enables the switch to communicate with peripherals through fiber optic connections. The trunk interfaces are peripheral modules that form a bridge between the DMS-250 switching matrix and the trunks it serves. They handle voice and data traffic to and from customers and other switching systems. DMS-250 trunk interfaces terminate DS-1, Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Primary Rate Interface (PRI), X.75/X.75 packet networking, and analog trunks. They also accommodate test and service circuits used in office and facility maintenance. It is important to note that the Class 4 switching matrix is a part of the centralized architecture of the Class 4. Unlike the media gateways in a softswitch solution, it must be collocated with the other components of the Class 4. DMS-250 billing requires the maintenance of real-time, transactionbased billing records for many thousands of customers and scores of variants in service pricing. The DMS-250 system automatically provides detailed data, formats the data into call detail records, and constructs bills.3
Private Branch Exchange (PBX)
As the name would imply, a private branch exchange (PBX) is a switch owned and maintained by a business with many (20 or more) users. A key
3 Nortel Networks. Product Service Information-DMS300/250 System Advantage. www. nortel.com, 2001.
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The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)
The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)
system is used by smaller offices. PBXs and key systems today are computer based and enable soft changes to be made through an administration terminal or PC. Unless the business has a need for technical telecommunications personnel on staff for other reasons, the business will normally contract with their vendor for routine adds, moves, and changes of telephone equipment. PBX systems are often equipped with key assemblies and systems, including voice mail, call accounting, a local maintenance terminal, and a dial-in modem. The voice mail system is controlled by the PBX and only receives calls when the PBX software determines a message can be left or retrieved. The call accounting system receives system message details on all call activities that occur within the PBX. The local terminal provides onsite access to the PBX for maintenance activities. The dial-in capability also provides access to the PBX for maintenance activities.4
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