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neering not limited to Bell Labs designs. Five 9s applies to data networks as well as to telephone switches. Data networks have long been engineered to achieve five 9s. VoIP is voice over a data network. Ergo a VoIP network can be engineered to deliver five 9s of reliability. A VoIP network can be just as, if not more, reliable than the PSTN.
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One to Five 9s
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As described in Table 2-4 in 2, The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN), downtime in a network can be very expensive. Uptime is referred to as availability. Availability is often expressed numerically, as a percentage of uninterrupted productive time containing from one to five 9s. For instance, 99 percent availability, or two 9s, equates to a certain amount of availability versus downtime, as does 99.9 percent (three 9s), and so on. Key contributors to reduced availability include planned site maintenance, operator errors, site-wide disasters, planned database reconfiguration, planned OS patches, and networking errors.
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Telcordia, formerly Bellcore, has compiled a number of specifications that define the standards for reliability in network components for both circuit and packet-switched technologies. It should be noted here that no one agency monitors a switch or other network element for its level of availability. Independent auditors can be hired to perform testing for availability along the lines of the specifications established in Table 7-1.
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What Is Reliability
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The terms reliability and availability are often used interchangeably, but they are two distinct measures of quality. Reliability refers to component failure rates measured over time, usually a year. Common reliability measures of components are the annual failure rate, failures in time (FIT), mean time between failure (MTBF), mean time to repair (MTTR), and SPOF. Table 7-2 outlines the availability terms.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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Softswitch Is Just as Reliable as Class 4/5 Switches
Table 7-1 Telcordia specifications related to system reliability
Telcordia specification GR-512 Description
7
Defines downtime and reporting requirements for downtime. Focuses on Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) and covers topics such as redundancy, failover, and so on. Defines FCC outage reporting criteria for carriers. Defines inter-Local Access and Transport Area (LATA) transport availability objectives and automatic protection switching (APS) switchover requirements, including specific time boundaries for when switchovers should occur. Defines service standards and provides definitions for what constitutes a cutoff call and an ineffective machine attempt. Defines reliability metrics of circuit-switched networks for packet-switched networks. Follows the PSTN reference model and represents the key elements of GR-512, GR-499, and TR-TSY-511. Includes the Network Equipment Building Standards (NEBS) that address the physical reliability of a switch. Entitled General Requirements for Supplier Provided Documentation and provides information on developing complete and comprehensive documentation. Entitled Human Factor Requirements for Equipment to Improve Network Reliability and focuses on designing equipment from a user s perspective.
GR-529 GR-499
TR-TSY-511
GR-1110
SR-3580 GR-454 CORE
GR-2914 CORE
Source: Convergent Networks and ATIS
Table 7-2 Terms related to availability
Term Annual failure rate FIT MTBF
Definition The amount of downtime expressed as the relationship between the MTBF and the number of hours in a year (8760). FIT is the total number of failures of a module in a billion hours (1,000,000,000 hours). Mean Time Between Failures the average time a manufacturer estimates before a failure occurs in a component or complete system. As MTBF is an estimate of averages, half of the devices can be expected to fail before that time and the other half after. An estimate on the part of the vendor as to the average time necessary to do repairs on equipment. A single point or network element at which failure could bring down a network or subnetwork.
MTTR SPOF
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